Chess theory

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The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.wikipedia
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Chess opening

openingopeningsopening moves
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
When a game begins to deviate from known opening theory, the players are said to be "out of book".

Chess

chess playerchess gamewestern chess
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
Writings about the theory of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century.

Chess middlegame

middlegamemiddle gamemiddlegames
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
Theory on the middlegame is less developed than the opening or endgames.

London System

The manuscript includes examples of games with the openings now known as Damiano's Defence, Philidor's Defense, the Giuoco Piano, Petroff's Defense, the Bishop's Opening, the Ruy Lopez, the Ponziani Opening, the Queen's Gambit Accepted, 1.d4 d5 2.Bf4 Bf5 (a form of the London System), Bird's Opening, and the English Opening.
It is a "system" opening that can be used against virtually any black defense and thus comprises a smaller body of opening theory than many other openings.

Chess endgame

endgameendgamesending
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
Current theory is that bishops are better than knights about 60 percent of the time in the endgame.

King's Gambit

Bishop's GambitKing's Gambit AcceptedKieseritzky gambit
Certain sequences of opening moves began to be given names, some of the earliest being Damiano's Defense, the King's Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.f4), the Queen's Gambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4), and the Sicilian Defense (1.e4 c5).
The alternative plan is to play Nf3 and Bc4 followed by 0-0, when the semi-open f-file allows White to barrel down onto the weakest point in Black's position, the pawn on f7. Theory has shown that in order for Black to maintain the gambit pawn, he may well be forced to weaken his, with moves such as ...g5 or odd piece placement (e.g. ...Nf6–h5).

Queen's Gambit

Certain sequences of opening moves began to be given names, some of the earliest being Damiano's Defense, the King's Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.f4), the Queen's Gambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4), and the Sicilian Defense (1.e4 c5).
As Wilhelm Steinitz and Siegbert Tarrasch developed chess theory and increased the appreciation of, the Queen's Gambit grew more popular, reaching its zenith in the 1920s and 1930s, and was played in all but two of 34 games in the 1927 World Championship match between José Raúl Capablanca and Alexander Alekhine.

Paul Rudolf von Bilguer

Bilguer
In 1843, Paul Rudolf von Bilguer published the German Handbuch des Schachspiels, which combined the virtues of Alexandre and Jaenisch's works.
Paul Rudolf (or Rudolph) von Bilguer (21 September 1815 – 16 September 1840) was a German chess master and chess theoretician from Ludwigslust in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

Handbuch des Schachspiels

HandbuchBilguerBilguer handbook
In 1843, Paul Rudolf von Bilguer published the German Handbuch des Schachspiels, which combined the virtues of Alexandre and Jaenisch's works.
It was a comprehensive reference book on the game, and one of the most important references on opening theory for many decades.

Howard Staunton

Staunton
The English master Howard Staunton, perhaps the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, included over 300 pages of analysis of the openings in his 1847 treatise The Chess Player's Handbook. That work immediately became the standard reference work in English-speaking countries, and was reprinted 21 times by 1935.
Early in 1843 Staunton prevailed in a long series of games against John Cochrane, a strong player and chess theoretician.

Chess endgame literature

Teoria e Pratica
Chess endgame literature
Many chess writers have contributed to the theory of endgames over the centuries, including Ruy López de Segura, François-André Philidor, Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz, Johann Berger, Alexey Troitsky, Yuri Averbakh, and Reuben Fine.

Aron Nimzowitsch

NimzowitschNimzowitsch, AronA. I. Nimzovitch
Leading player and theorist Aron Nimzowitsch's influential books, My System (1925), Die Blockade (1925) (in German), and Chess Praxis (1936), are among the most important works on the middlegame.
Nimzowitsch's chess theories, when first propounded, flew in the face of widely held orthodoxies enunciated by the dominant theorist of the era, Siegbert Tarrasch, and his disciples.

Chess strategy

strategystrategiccontrol of the center
The mid-20th century also saw the publication of The Middle Game, volumes 1 and 2, by former World Champion Max Euwe and Hans Kramer, and a series of books by the Czechoslovak-German grandmaster Luděk Pachman: three volumes of Complete Chess Strategy, Modern Chess Strategy, Modern Chess Tactics, and Attack and Defense in Modern Chess Tactics.
Professional players spend years studying openings, and continue doing so throughout their careers, as opening theory continues to evolve.

Chess piece relative value

pointsvalueschess piece value
Chess piece relative value
Many of the systems have a 2-point difference between the rook and a minor piece, but most theorists put that difference at about 1 1⁄2 points, see The exchange (chess)#Value of the exchange.

H. J. R. Murray

Murray, H. J. R.Murray
In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess

A History of Chess

In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess

List of chess books

chess booksbookbooks on chess
He estimated that at that time the "total number of books on chess, chess magazines, and newspapers devoting space regularly to the game probably exceeds 5,000".

List of chess periodicals

chess magazineschess periodicalAmerican Chess Magazine
He estimated that at that time the "total number of books on chess, chess magazines, and newspapers devoting space regularly to the game probably exceeds 5,000".

Baruch Harold Wood

B. H. WoodB.H. WoodWood
In 1949, B. H. Wood estimated that the number had increased to about 20,000.

David Vincent Hooper

David HooperHooperHooper, David
David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since then there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..."

Ken Whyld

WhyldWhyld, Kenneth
David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since then there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..."

Chess libraries

chess librarychess and checkers collectionlibrary
The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals.

John Griswold White

John G. White
The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals.

Cleveland Public Library

Cleveland Library SystemCleveland PublicCleveland Public Library – Lee–Harvard Branch
The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals.

Spain

🇪🇸SpanishESP
The earliest printed work on chess theory, whose date can be established with some exactitude, is Repeticion de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez by the Spaniard Luis Ramirez de Lucena, published c. 1497, which included among other things analysis of eleven chess openings.