Potential location of pain from a heart attack
A blockage of coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common cause of chest pain in adults

Associated symptoms may include pain in the shoulder, arm, upper abdomen, or jaw, along with nausea, sweating, or shortness of breath.

- Chest pain

Acute coronary syndrome frequently presents with retrosternal chest discomfort and difficulty catching the breath.

- Shortness of breath

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A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.

Myocardial infarction

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.
Cross section showing anterior left ventricle wall infarction
Diagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).
A 12-lead ECG showing an inferior STEMI due to reduced perfusion through the right coronary artery. Elevation of the ST segment can be seen in leads II, III and aVF.
ECG : AMI with ST elevation in V2-4
Inserting a stent to widen the artery.

The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw.

Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat or feeling tired.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.

Anxiety

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.
Painting entitled Anxiety, 1894, by Edvard Munch
A marble bust of the Roman Emperor Decius from the Capitoline Museum. This portrait "conveys an impression of anxiety and weariness, as of a man shouldering heavy [state] responsibilities".

Respiratory, as shortness of breath or sighing breathing.

Cardiac, as palpitations, tachycardia, or chest pain.

Chest X-ray of a pneumonia caused by influenza and Haemophilus influenzae, with patchy consolidations, mainly in the right upper lobe (arrow)

Pneumonia

Inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli.

Inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli.

Chest X-ray of a pneumonia caused by influenza and Haemophilus influenzae, with patchy consolidations, mainly in the right upper lobe (arrow)
Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia
The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia, imaged by an electron microscope
Cavitating pneumonia due to MRSA as seen on a CT scan
A chest x-ray of a patient with severe viral pneumonia due to SARS
Pneumonia fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, hindering oxygenation. The alveolus on the left is normal, whereas the one on the right is full of fluid from pneumonia.
A chest X-ray showing a very prominent wedge-shaped area of airspace consolidation in the right lung characteristic of acute bacterial lobar pneumonia
CT of the chest demonstrating right-sided pneumonia (left side of the image)
A pleural effusion: as seen on chest X-ray. The A arrow indicates fluid layering in the right chest. The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung. The volume of the lung is reduced because of the collection of fluid around the lung.
Deaths from lower respiratory infections per million persons in 2012
WPA poster, 1936/1937
Pneumonia seen by ultrasound
Right middle lobe pneumonia in a child as seen on plain X-ray

Symptoms typically include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.

Asthma

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.
Salbutamol metered dose inhaler commonly used to treat asthma attacks.
Fluticasone propionate metered dose inhaler commonly used for long-term control.
Rates of asthma in 2017
Ebers Papyrus detailing treatment of asthma
1907 advertisement for Grimault's Indian Cigarettes, promoted as a means of relieving asthma. They contained belladonna and cannabis.
Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C shows a cross-section of an airway during asthma symptoms.
alt=A tissue cross section of the airway showing a stained pink wall and an inside full of white mucous|Obstruction of the lumen of a bronchiole by mucoid exudate, goblet cell metaplasia, and epithelial basement membrane thickening in a person with asthma.
Diagram of asthma
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alt=A map of the world with Europe shaded yellow, most of North and South America orange and Southern Africa a dark red|Disability-adjusted life year for asthma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html |title=WHO Disease and injury country estimates |year=2009 |work=World Health Organization |access-date=November 11, 2009| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091111101009/http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html|archive-date= 11 November 2009 | url-status= live}}</ref>{{refbegin|3}}{{legend|#b3b3b3|no data}}{{legend|#ffff65|0-100}}{{legend|#fff200|100–150}}{{legend|#ffdc00|150–200}}{{legend|#ffc600|200–250}}{{legend|#ffb000|250–300}}{{legend|#ff9a00|300–350}}{{legend|#ff8400|350–400}}{{legend|#ff6e00|400–450}}{{legend|#ff5800|450–500}}{{legend|#ff4200|500–550}}{{legend|#ff2c00|550–600}}{{legend|#cb0000|>600}}{{refend}}

Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

An artistic rendition of someone experiencing a panic attack, being reassured by another person.

Panic attack

An artistic rendition of someone experiencing a panic attack, being reassured by another person.
Artist's subjective impression of what a panic attack feels like

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear and discomfort that may include palpitations, sweating, chest pain or chest discomfort, shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, numbness, confusion, or a feeling of impending doom or of losing control.

Hypotension

Low blood pressure.

Low blood pressure.

chest pain

shortness of breath

A lung illustration depicting a pulmonary embolism as a thrombus (blood clot) that has travelled from another region of the body, causes occlusion of the pulmonary bronchial artery, leading to arterial thrombosis of the superior and inferior lobes in the left lung

Pulmonary embolism

Blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

Blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

A lung illustration depicting a pulmonary embolism as a thrombus (blood clot) that has travelled from another region of the body, causes occlusion of the pulmonary bronchial artery, leading to arterial thrombosis of the superior and inferior lobes in the left lung
A deep vein thrombosis as seen in the right leg is a risk factor for PE
A Hampton hump in a person with a right lower lobe pulmonary embolism
Selective pulmonary angiogram revealing clot (labeled A) causing a central obstruction in the left main pulmonary artery. ECG tracing shown at the bottom.
Electrocardiogram of a person with pulmonary embolism, showing sinus tachycardia of approximately 100 beats per minute, large S wave in Lead I, moderate Q wave in Lead III, inverted T wave in Lead III, and inverted T waves in leads V1 and V3.
Histopathology of a pulmonary artery from autopsy. It shows a fat embolism (seen as multiple empty globular spaces on this H&E stain since its processing dissolves fat). There is a bone marrow fragment in the middle, and multiple single hematopoietic cells in the blood, being evidence of fracture as the source of the embolism.
Used inferior vena cava filter.
Large saddle embolus seen in the pulmonary artery (white arrows).
On CT scan, pulmonary emboli can be classified according to the level along the arterial tree.
Segmental and subsegmental pulmonary emboli on both sides
CT pulmonary angiography showing a "saddle embolus" at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery and thrombus burden in the lobar arteries on both sides.
Pulmonary embolism (white arrow) that has been long-standing and has caused a lung infarction (black arrow) seen as a reverse halo sign.

Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.

Illustration depicting a collapsed lung or pneumothorax

Pneumothorax

Abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.

Abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.

Illustration depicting a collapsed lung or pneumothorax
A schematic drawing of a bulla and a bleb, two lung abnormalities that may rupture and lead to pneumothorax
CT scan of the chest showing a pneumothorax on the person's left side (right side on the image). A chest tube is in place (small black mark on the right side of the image), the air-filled pleural cavity (black) and ribs (white) can be seen. The heart can be seen in the center.
CT with the identification of underlying lung lesion: an apical bulla on the right side
A chest tube placed on the right for a pneumothorax
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) wedge resection
Anteroposterior inspired X-ray, showing subtle left-sided pneumothorax caused by port insertion
Lateral inspired X-ray at the same time, more clearly showing the pneumothorax posteriorly in this case
Anteroposterior expired X-ray at the same time, more clearly showing the pneumothorax in this case
Chest X-ray showing a pneumothorax on the right (left in the image), where the absence of lung markings indicates that there is free air inside the chest
Chest X-ray showing the features of pneumothorax on the left side of the person (right in image)

Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath.

Figure A shows normal anatomy. Figure B shows lungs with pleurisy in the right lung, and a pneumothorax of the left lung.

Pleurisy

Inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity .

Inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity .

Figure A shows normal anatomy. Figure B shows lungs with pleurisy in the right lung, and a pneumothorax of the left lung.
Pleurisy
Pleural linings and space (marked in blue)
The illustration shows a person undergoing thoracentesis. The person sits upright and leans on a table. Excess fluid from the pleural space is drained into a bag.

This can result in a sharp chest pain while breathing.

Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, fever or weight loss, depending on the underlying cause.

Blockage of a coronary artery

Acute coronary syndrome

Syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

Syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

Blockage of a coronary artery
Classification of acute coronary syndromes.

The most common symptom is centrally located chest pain, often radiating to the left shoulder or angle of the jaw, crushing, central and associated with nausea and sweating.

This may be associated with diaphoresis (sweating), nausea and vomiting, as well as shortness of breath.