Chest pain

Potential location of pain from a heart attack
A blockage of coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common cause of chest pain in adults

Pain or discomfort in the chest, typically the front of the chest.

- Chest pain
Potential location of pain from a heart attack

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A microscope image of myocarditis at autopsy in a person with acute onset of heart failure

Myocarditis

Acquired cardiomyopathy due to inflammation of the heart muscle.

Acquired cardiomyopathy due to inflammation of the heart muscle.

A microscope image of myocarditis at autopsy in a person with acute onset of heart failure
Diffuse ST elevation in a young male due to myocarditis and pericarditis
Lymphocytic myocarditis (white arrow points to a lymphocyte), commonly showing myocyte necrosis (black arrow), seen as hypereosinophilic cytoplasm with loss of striations.
Endomyocardial biopsy specimen with extensive eosinophilic infiltrate involving the endocardium and myocardium (hematoxylin and eosin stain)

Symptoms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, decreased ability to exercise, and an irregular heartbeat.

Illustration depicting a collapsed lung or pneumothorax

Pneumothorax

Abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.

Abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.

Illustration depicting a collapsed lung or pneumothorax
A schematic drawing of a bulla and a bleb, two lung abnormalities that may rupture and lead to pneumothorax
CT scan of the chest showing a pneumothorax on the person's left side (right side on the image). A chest tube is in place (small black mark on the right side of the image), the air-filled pleural cavity (black) and ribs (white) can be seen. The heart can be seen in the center.
CT with the identification of underlying lung lesion: an apical bulla on the right side
A chest tube placed on the right for a pneumothorax
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) wedge resection
Anteroposterior inspired X-ray, showing subtle left-sided pneumothorax caused by port insertion
Lateral inspired X-ray at the same time, more clearly showing the pneumothorax posteriorly in this case
Anteroposterior expired X-ray at the same time, more clearly showing the pneumothorax in this case
Chest X-ray showing a pneumothorax on the right (left in the image), where the absence of lung markings indicates that there is free air inside the chest
Chest X-ray showing the features of pneumothorax on the left side of the person (right in image)

Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath.

Blockage of a coronary artery

Acute coronary syndrome

Syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

Syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

Blockage of a coronary artery
Classification of acute coronary syndromes.

The most common symptom is centrally located chest pain, often radiating to the left shoulder or angle of the jaw, crushing, central and associated with nausea and sweating.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.

Anxiety

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.
Painting entitled Anxiety, 1894, by Edvard Munch
A marble bust of the Roman Emperor Decius from the Capitoline Museum. This portrait "conveys an impression of anxiety and weariness, as of a man shouldering heavy [state] responsibilities".

Cardiac, as palpitations, tachycardia, or chest pain.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.

Asthma

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

Peak flow meters are used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate, important in both monitoring and diagnosing asthma.
Salbutamol metered dose inhaler commonly used to treat asthma attacks.
Fluticasone propionate metered dose inhaler commonly used for long-term control.
Rates of asthma in 2017
Ebers Papyrus detailing treatment of asthma
1907 advertisement for Grimault's Indian Cigarettes, promoted as a means of relieving asthma. They contained belladonna and cannabis.
Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C shows a cross-section of an airway during asthma symptoms.
alt=A tissue cross section of the airway showing a stained pink wall and an inside full of white mucous|Obstruction of the lumen of a bronchiole by mucoid exudate, goblet cell metaplasia, and epithelial basement membrane thickening in a person with asthma.
Diagram of asthma
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alt=A map of the world with Europe shaded yellow, most of North and South America orange and Southern Africa a dark red|Disability-adjusted life year for asthma per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html |title=WHO Disease and injury country estimates |year=2009 |work=World Health Organization |access-date=November 11, 2009| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091111101009/http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html|archive-date= 11 November 2009 | url-status= live}}</ref>{{refbegin|3}}{{legend|#b3b3b3|no data}}{{legend|#ffff65|0-100}}{{legend|#fff200|100–150}}{{legend|#ffdc00|150–200}}{{legend|#ffc600|200–250}}{{legend|#ffb000|250–300}}{{legend|#ff9a00|300–350}}{{legend|#ff8400|350–400}}{{legend|#ff6e00|400–450}}{{legend|#ff5800|450–500}}{{legend|#ff4200|500–550}}{{legend|#ff2c00|550–600}}{{legend|#cb0000|>600}}{{refend}}

Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

An artistic rendition of someone experiencing a panic attack, being reassured by another person.

Panic attack

An artistic rendition of someone experiencing a panic attack, being reassured by another person.
Artist's subjective impression of what a panic attack feels like

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear and discomfort that may include palpitations, sweating, chest pain or chest discomfort, shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, numbness, confusion, or a feeling of impending doom or of losing control.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Condition in which the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

Condition in which the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

An ECG showing HOCM
Pressure tracings demonstrating the Brockenbrough–Braunwald–Morrow sign AO = Descending aorta; LV = Left ventricle; ECG = Electrocardiogram. After the third QRS complex, the ventricle has more time to fill. Since there is more time to fill, the left ventricle will have more volume at the end of diastole (increased preload). Due to the Frank–Starling law of the heart, the contraction of the left ventricle (and pressure generated by the left ventricle) will be greater on the subsequent beat (beat #4 in this picture). Because of the dynamic nature of the outflow obstruction in HCM, the obstruction increases more than the left ventricular pressure increase. This causes a fall in the aortic pressure as the left ventricular pressure rises (seen as the yellow shaded area in the picture).
Echocardiography of hypertrophic-obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) in a cat.
Saddle thrombus in the feline aorta. 1 opened Aorta with thrombus, 2 A. iliaca externa, 3 common trunk for both Aa. iliacae internae, 4 A. circumflexa ilium profunda, 5 A. mesenterica caudalis, 6 Colon descendens.

It may also result in chest pain or fainting.

A chest X-ray showing achalasia ( arrows point to the outline of the massively dilated esophagus )

Esophageal achalasia

Failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed.

Failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed.

A chest X-ray showing achalasia ( arrows point to the outline of the massively dilated esophagus )
Transhiatal oesophagectomy specimen from a patient suffering from late-stage achalasia. Diverticulum at the left lower end of the oesophagus.
An axial CT image showing marked dilatation of the esophagus in a person with achalasia.
"Bird's beak" appearance and "megaesophagus", typical in achalasia.
Schematic of manometry in achalasia showing aperistaltic contractions, increased intraesophageal pressure, and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Image of a stomach which has undergone Fundoplomy

Achalasia is characterized by difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation, and sometimes chest pain.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

Chronic condition in which stomach contents and acid rise up into the esophagus, resulting in symptoms and/or complications.

X-ray showing radiocontrast from the stomach (white material below diaphragm) entering the esophagus (three vertical collections of white material in the mid-line of the chest) due to severe reflux
Frontal view of severe tooth erosion in GERD.
Severe tooth erosion in GERD.
A comparison of a healthy condition to GERD
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach: This is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and can be a cause of dysphagia or difficulty swallowing.

Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth.

A lung illustration depicting a pulmonary embolism as a thrombus (blood clot) that has travelled from another region of the body, causes occlusion of the pulmonary bronchial artery, leading to arterial thrombosis of the superior and inferior lobes in the left lung

Pulmonary embolism

Blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

Blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

A lung illustration depicting a pulmonary embolism as a thrombus (blood clot) that has travelled from another region of the body, causes occlusion of the pulmonary bronchial artery, leading to arterial thrombosis of the superior and inferior lobes in the left lung
A deep vein thrombosis as seen in the right leg is a risk factor for PE
A Hampton hump in a person with a right lower lobe pulmonary embolism
Selective pulmonary angiogram revealing clot (labeled A) causing a central obstruction in the left main pulmonary artery. ECG tracing shown at the bottom.
Electrocardiogram of a person with pulmonary embolism, showing sinus tachycardia of approximately 100 beats per minute, large S wave in Lead I, moderate Q wave in Lead III, inverted T wave in Lead III, and inverted T waves in leads V1 and V3.
Histopathology of a pulmonary artery from autopsy. It shows a fat embolism (seen as multiple empty globular spaces on this H&E stain since its processing dissolves fat). There is a bone marrow fragment in the middle, and multiple single hematopoietic cells in the blood, being evidence of fracture as the source of the embolism.
Used inferior vena cava filter.
Large saddle embolus seen in the pulmonary artery (white arrows).
On CT scan, pulmonary emboli can be classified according to the level along the arterial tree.
Segmental and subsegmental pulmonary emboli on both sides
CT pulmonary angiography showing a "saddle embolus" at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery and thrombus burden in the lobar arteries on both sides.
Pulmonary embolism (white arrow) that has been long-standing and has caused a lung infarction (black arrow) seen as a reverse halo sign.

Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.