A report on Chest pain

Potential location of pain from a heart attack
A blockage of coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common cause of chest pain in adults

Pain or discomfort in the chest, typically the front of the chest.

- Chest pain
Potential location of pain from a heart attack

40 related topics with Alpha

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Leads aVL and aVF of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation. There are irregular intervals between heart beats. No P waves are seen and there is an erratic baseline between QRS complexes. The heart rate is about 125 beats per minute.

Atrial fibrillation

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Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atrial chambers of the heart.

Abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atrial chambers of the heart.

Leads aVL and aVF of an electrocardiogram showing atrial fibrillation. There are irregular intervals between heart beats. No P waves are seen and there is an erratic baseline between QRS complexes. The heart rate is about 125 beats per minute.
Normal rhythm tracing (top) Atrial fibrillation (bottom)
How a stroke can occur during atrial fibrillation
Non-modifiable risk factors (top left box) and modifiable risk factors (bottom left box) for atrial fibrillation. The main outcomes of atrial fibrillation are in the right box. BMI=Body Mass Index.
A 12-lead ECG showing atrial fibrillation at approximately 132 beats per minute
Diagram of normal sinus rhythm as seen on ECG. In atrial fibrillation the P waves, which represent depolarization of the top of the heart, are absent.
ECG of atrial fibrillation (top) and normal sinus rhythm (bottom). The purple arrow indicates a P wave, which is lost in atrial fibrillation.
3D Medical Animation still shot of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion

Since most cases of AF are secondary to other medical problems, the presence of chest pain or angina, signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland) such as weight loss and diarrhea, and symptoms suggestive of lung disease can indicate an underlying cause.

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Troponin

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Complex of three regulatory proteins that are integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.

Complex of three regulatory proteins that are integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.

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Troponin activation. Troponin C (red) binds Ca2+, which stabilizes the activated state, where troponin I (yellow) is no longer bound to actin. Troponin T (blue) anchors the complex on tropomyosin.

They are measured in the blood to differentiate between unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes. Figure B is an enlarged view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis.

Bronchitis

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Inflammation of the bronchi in the lungs that causes coughing.

Inflammation of the bronchi in the lungs that causes coughing.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes. Figure B is an enlarged view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis.
Bronchitis
Plastic bronchitis bronchial casts

Symptoms include coughing up sputum, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Normal peristalsis in time space graph. Nutcracker esophagus shows higher amplitude contractions (Z-axis) that take longer to pass (X-axis)

Nutcracker esophagus

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Disorder of the movement of the esophagus characterized by contractions in the smooth muscle of the esophagus in a normal sequence but at an excessive amplitude or duration.

Disorder of the movement of the esophagus characterized by contractions in the smooth muscle of the esophagus in a normal sequence but at an excessive amplitude or duration.

Normal peristalsis in time space graph. Nutcracker esophagus shows higher amplitude contractions (Z-axis) that take longer to pass (X-axis)
Diagram of esophageal motility study in nutcracker esophagus: The disorder shows peristalsis with high-pressure esophageal contractions exceeding 180 mmHg and contractile waves with a long duration exceeding 6 sec.
Normal esophagus in (A). Nutcracker esophagus in (C): high-pressure waves in blue; cross-sectional areas (CSA) in fucsia.

It causes difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, to both solid and liquid foods, and can cause significant chest pain; it may also be asymptomatic.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)

Lung cancer

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Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)
Relationship between cigarette consumption per person (blue) and male lung cancer rates (dark yellow) in the US over the century
Risk of death from lung cancer is strongly correlated with smoking.
CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung
Primary pulmonary sarcoma in an asymptomatic 72-year-old male
Pie chart showing incidences of NSCLCs as compared to SCLCs shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus nonsmokers shown for each type
Cross section of a human lung: The white area in the upper lobe is cancer; the black areas are discoloration due to smoking.
Pneumonectomy specimen containing a squamous-cell carcinoma, seen as a white area near the bronchi
Brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy) for lung cancer given via the airway
Monoclonal antibodies used in the treatment of NSCLC and their mechanism of action https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
The main treatment arms of phase 3 clinical trials providing immunotherapy in the first line for patients with NSCLC https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
Overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with protocols incorporating immunotherapy in the first line for advanced or metastatic disease. Nasser NJ, Gorenberg M, Agbarya A. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 373;
Lung cancer, incidence, mortality, and survival, England 1971–2011
Stage IA and IB lung cancer
Stage IIA lung cancer
Stage IIB lung cancer
One option for stage IIB lung cancer, with T2b; but if tumor is within 2 cm of the carina, this is stage 3
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIA lung cancer, if there is one feature from the list on each side
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IV lung cancer
Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers deaths per million persons in 2012
0–78–1213–3233–5354–8182–125126–286287–398399–527528–889

The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

The costal cartilages

Costochondritis

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Benign inflammation of the upper costochondral and sternocostal (cartilage to sternum) joints.

Benign inflammation of the upper costochondral and sternocostal (cartilage to sternum) joints.

The costal cartilages
Anatomy of the costal cartilage
Muscles of the thoracic wall

Chest pain is considered a symptom of a medical emergency, and one study found costochondritis was responsible for 30% of patients with chest pain in an emergency department setting.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

Esophagus

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Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.

Diseases may cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), painful swallowing (odynophagia), chest pain, or cause no symptoms at all.

A drawing of a hiatal hernia

Hiatal hernia

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Type of hernia in which abdominal organs slip through the diaphragm into the middle compartment of the chest.

Type of hernia in which abdominal organs slip through the diaphragm into the middle compartment of the chest.

A drawing of a hiatal hernia
Schematic diagram of different types of hiatus hernia. Green is the esophagus, red is the stomach, purple is the diaphragm, blue is the HIS-angle. A is the normal anatomy, B is a pre-stage, C is a sliding hiatal hernia, and D is a paraesophageal (rolling) type.
A large hiatal hernia on chest X-ray marked by open arrows in contrast to the heart borders marked by closed arrows
This hiatal hernia is mainly identified by an air-fluid level (labeled with arrows).
Upper GI endoscopy depicting hiatal hernia
Upper GI endoscopy in retroflexion showing Type I hiatal hernia
A hiatal hernia as seen on CT
A large hiatal hernia as seen on CT imaging
A large hiatal hernia as seen on CT imaging

Other symptoms may include trouble swallowing and chest pains.

Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.

Tuberculosis

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Infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria.

Infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria.

Chest X-ray of a person with advanced tuberculosis: Infection in both lungs is marked by white arrow-heads, and the formation of a cavity is marked by black arrows.
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The main symptoms of variants and stages of tuberculosis are given, with many symptoms overlapping with other variants, while others are more (but not entirely) specific for certain variants. Multiple variants may be present simultaneously.
Scanning electron micrograph of M. tuberculosis
Public health campaigns in the 1920s tried to halt the spread of TB.
Robert Carswell's illustration of tubercle
Microscopy of tuberculous epididymitis. H&E stain
M. tuberculosis (stained red) in sputum
Mantoux tuberculin skin test
Tuberculosis public health campaign in Ireland, c. 1905
Tuberculosis phototherapy treatment on 3 March 1934, in Kuopio, Finland
Egyptian mummy in the British Museum – tubercular decay has been found in the spine.
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacillus.
Painting The Sick Child by Edvard Munch, 1885–86, depicts the illness of his sister Sophie, who died of tuberculosis when Edvard was 14; his mother too died of the disease.
Number of new cases of tuberculosis per 100,000 people in 2016.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tuberculosis incidence (per 100,000 people) |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/incidence-of-tuberculosis-sdgs |website=Our World in Data |access-date=7 March 2020 |archive-date=26 September 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190926041419/https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/incidence-of-tuberculosis-sdgs |url-status=live }}</ref>
Tuberculosis deaths per million persons in 2012
Tuberculosis deaths by region, 1990 to 2017.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tuberculosis deaths by region |url=https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/tuberculosis-deaths-region |website=Our World in Data |access-date=7 March 2020 |archive-date=8 May 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200508204644/https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/tuberculosis-deaths-region |url-status=live }}</ref>

Symptoms may include chest pain and a prolonged cough producing sputum.

One of the areas more commonly affected in precordial catch syndrome

Precordial catch syndrome

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One of the areas more commonly affected in precordial catch syndrome

Precordial catch syndrome (PCS) is a non-serious condition in which there are sharp stabbing pains in the chest.