Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai ShekJiang JieshiChiang KaishekChiangGeneralissimoPresident Chiang Kai-shek蒋中正1949–1975Chaing Kai-shekChan Kai Shek
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975 ), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized via Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.wikipedia
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Sun Yat-sen

Sun YatsenDr. Sun Yat-senSun Zhongshan
Born in Chekiang Province, Chiang was a member of the Kuomintang and a lieutenant of Sun Yat-sen in the revolution to overthrow the Beiyang government and reunify China.
He did not live to see his party unify the country under his successor, Chiang Kai-shek in the Northern Expedition.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

Republic of ChinaChinaChinese
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975 ), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized via Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.
General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the KMT leader after Sun's death, started the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was accomplished in 1928.

Chinese nationalism

Chinese nationalistnationalistnationalism
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975 ), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized via Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.
By 1930, Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) had expelled the Communists from the KMT coalition.

Zhejiang

Zhejiang ProvinceChekiangZhejiang, China
Born in Chekiang Province, Chiang was a member of the Kuomintang and a lieutenant of Sun Yat-sen in the revolution to overthrow the Beiyang government and reunify China. Chiang was born in Xikou, a town in Fenghua, Zhejiang, about 30 km west of central Ningbo.
Zhejiang was also the birthplace of the Chinese Nationalist leader and president Chiang Kai-shek.

Northern Expedition

North ExpeditionChinese RevolutionNorthern Expedition (1926–1927)
Commander in chief of the National Revolutionary Army (from which he came to be known as Generalissimo), he led the Northern Expedition from 1926 to 1928, before defeating a coalition of warlords and nominally reunifying China under a new Nationalist government.
The expedition was led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and was divided into two phases.

Nanjing decade

Nanking decadeChinese GovernmentNanjing government
As leader of the Republic of China in the Nanjing decade, Chiang sought to strike a difficult balance between the modernizing China while also devoting resources to defending the nation against the impending Japanese threat.
It began when Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek took Nanjing from Zhili clique warlord Sun Chuanfang halfway through the Northern Expedition in 1927.

Beiyang government

ChinaBeijing GovernmentRepublic of China
Born in Chekiang Province, Chiang was a member of the Kuomintang and a lieutenant of Sun Yat-sen in the revolution to overthrow the Beiyang government and reunify China.
His successor Chiang Kai-shek defeated the Beiyang warlords during the Northern Expedition between 1926 and 1928, and overthrew the factions and the government, effectively unifying the country in 1928.

Chinese Civil War

civil warCommunist RevolutionChina
Midway through the campaign, the KMT–CPC alliance broke down and Chiang purged the communists inside the party, triggering a civil war with the CCP, which he eventually lost in 1949. No sooner had the Second World War ended than the Civil War with the communists, by then led by Mao Zedong, resumed.
In 1923, Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants from his Tongmenghui days, for several months of military and political study in the Soviet capital Moscow.

Xi'an Incident

Xian IncidentChiang was kidnappedhis kidnap and release
Trying to avoid a war with Japan while hostilities with CCP continued, he was kidnapped in the Xi'an Incident and obliged to form an Anti-Japanese United Front with the CCP.
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Republic of China, was detained by his subordinates, Generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng, in order to force the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) to change its policies regarding the Empire of Japan and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

Generalissimo

GeneralísimoGeneralissimusgénéralissime
Commander in chief of the National Revolutionary Army (from which he came to be known as Generalissimo), he led the Northern Expedition from 1926 to 1928, before defeating a coalition of warlords and nominally reunifying China under a new Nationalist government.
Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers and if a senior military officer becomes the head of state or head of government of a nation like Chiang Kai-Shek in China and later in Taiwan, and Francisco Franco in Spain.

National Revolutionary Army

Chinese Nationalist ArmyNationalist ArmyNRA
Commander in chief of the National Revolutionary Army (from which he came to be known as Generalissimo), he led the Northern Expedition from 1926 to 1928, before defeating a coalition of warlords and nominally reunifying China under a new Nationalist government.
A large number of the Army's officers passed through the Whampoa Military Academy, and the first commandant, Chiang Kai-shek, became commander-in-chief of the Army in 1925 before launching the successful Northern Expedition.

Republic of China retreat to Taiwan

retreatedKMT retreat to Taiwan in 1949relocated to Taiwan
In 1949 Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics during the White Terror.
After the retreat, the Republic of China leadership, led by Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek planned to make the retreat only temporary, hoping to regroup, fortify and reconquer the mainland.

White Terror (Taiwan)

White TerrorTaiwanArticle 100 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of China
In 1949 Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics during the White Terror.
Around 140,000 Taiwanese were imprisoned during this period, of whom from about 3,000 to 4,000 were executed for their real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) government led by Chiang Kai-shek.

Second United Front

United FrontSecond Kuomintang-CCP United Fronta nominal alliance
Trying to avoid a war with Japan while hostilities with CCP continued, he was kidnapped in the Xi'an Incident and obliged to form an Anti-Japanese United Front with the CCP.
In 1927 the Chinese Communists revolted against Kuomintang following a purge of its members in Shanghai by National Revolutionary Army commander Chiang Kai-shek, which marked the end of the KMT's four-year alliance with Soviet Union and its cooperation with the CCP during the Northern Expedition to defeat warlords and unify China.

Republic of China Military Academy

Whampoa Military AcademyWhampoa AcademyHuangpu Military Academy
With Soviet and communist (CCP) help, Chiang organized the military for Sun's Canton Nationalist Government and headed the Whampoa Military Academy.
Sun's favorite and rising star Chiang Kai-shek was appointed the first commandant of the academy.

First United Front

United Frontalliance between the two partiesCCP-KMT United Front
Midway through the campaign, the KMT–CPC alliance broke down and Chiang purged the communists inside the party, triggering a civil war with the CCP, which he eventually lost in 1949.
In 1927, KMT leader Chiang Kai-shek purged the Communists from the Front while the Northern Expedition was still half-complete.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
Midway through the campaign, the KMT–CPC alliance broke down and Chiang purged the communists inside the party, triggering a civil war with the CCP, which he eventually lost in 1949. With Soviet and communist (CCP) help, Chiang organized the military for Sun's Canton Nationalist Government and headed the Whampoa Military Academy.
When KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists.

Chungcheng

ZhongzhengChung ChengChung-Cheng
Many public places in Taiwan are named Chungcheng after Chiang.
The majority of these places and things are named after Chiang Chung-cheng, the preferred given name of Chiang Kai-shek.

Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall

National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial HallNational Taiwan Democracy Memorial HallCKS Memorial Hall
Similarly, the monument erected to Chiang's memory in Taipei, known in English as Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, was literally named "Chung Cheng Memorial Hall" in Chinese.
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous national monument, landmark and tourist attraction erected in memory of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, he mobilized China for the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Later in the same year, Zhang decided to declare his allegiance to the Nationalist government in Nanjing under Chiang Kai-shek, and consequently, China was nominally reunified under one government.

Taoyuan International Airport

Taiwan Taoyuan International AirportChiang Kai-shek International AirportTaipei Taoyuan International Airport
For many years passengers arriving at the Chiang Kai-shek International Airport were greeted by signs in Chinese welcoming them to the "Chung Cheng International Airport".
The airport, originally planned as Taoyuan International Airport, bore the name of late President Chiang Kai-shek until 2006.

Mukden Incident

Manchurian IncidentSeptember 18 IncidentMukden
As leader of the Republic of China in the Nanjing decade, Chiang sought to strike a difficult balance between the modernizing China while also devoting resources to defending the nation against the impending Japanese threat.
Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Zuolin's son and successor, joined the Nanjing Government led by Chiang Kai-shek from anti-Japanese sentiment.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
No sooner had the Second World War ended than the Civil War with the communists, by then led by Mao Zedong, resumed.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but, after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell.

President of the Republic of China

PresidentPresident of TaiwanChairman of the National Government of China
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975 ), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized via Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in Taiwan until his death.
Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Nationalist Government under Chiang Kai-shek was restored in Nanjing and the KMT set out to enact a liberal democratic Constitution in line with the last stage of Sun Yat-sen's three stages of national development.

Fenghua District

FenghuaFenghua CityFenghua county
Chiang was born in Xikou, a town in Fenghua, Zhejiang, about 30 km west of central Ningbo.
Fenghua is most famous for being the hometown of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek.