(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India
Chiang in 1943
Site of the first CCP Congress, in the former Shanghai French Concession
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
China (today's Guangdong), Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a marble bridge) are all shown as separate regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius
Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chinese communists celebrate Joseph Stalin's birthday, 1949.
A baby sits in the remains of a Shanghai train station on 'Bloody Saturday', 1937
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
10,000 years old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 BCE)
A temporary monument displayed in Changsha, Hunan Province, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the CCP's founding
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century BCE)
A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai
Japanese landing near Shanghai, November 1937
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.
A billboard advertising Xi Jinping Thought in Shenzhen, Guangdong
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The 18th National Congress, convened in November 2012
Soviet embassy in Nanjing is being burned down by arson on 1 January 1938.
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent
Front cover of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Xi Jinping (second from left) with Enrique Peña Nieto (second from right), the former President of Mexico and a leading member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party
National Revolutionary Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
Badge given to party members
Map showing the extent of Japanese occupation in 1941 (in red)
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers. The image shows a celebration ceremony inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City after the signing of the Boxer Protocol in 1901.
Theaters (military operational regions) of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army from late 1938 to early 1940
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, one of the first republics in Asia.
Wang Jingwei and officers of the Collaborationist Chinese Army
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong toasting together in 1945 following the end of World War II
Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Taierzhuang, March–April 1938
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march to the front in 1939.
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests was ended by a military-led massacre which brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Eighth Route Army Commander Zhu De with a KMT "Blue Sky, White Sun" emblem cap
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Satellite image of China from NASA WorldWind
115th Division of the Eighth Route Army Lieutenant General (NRA rank) Lin Biao in NRA uniform
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for mainland China.
War declaration against Japan by the Chongqing Nationalist Government on 9 December 1941
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
A giant panda, China's most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang with Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell in 1942, Burma
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
The Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.
A United States poster from the United China Relief organization advocating aid to China.
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world.
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, one of the first Chinese spaceports
I-16 with Chinese insignia. The I-16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Air Force and Soviet volunteers.
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Internet penetration rates in China in the context of East Asia and Southeast Asia, 1995–2012
Flying Tigers Commander Claire Lee Chennault
Duke of Zhou
The Duge Bridge is the highest bridge in the world.
A "blood chit" issued to American Volunteer Group pilots requesting all Chinese to offer rescue and protection
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
The Beijing Daxing International Airport features the world's largest single-building airport terminal.
Free Thai, American and Chinese military officers in China during the war
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is the world's busiest container port since 2010.
The India–China airlift delivered approximately 650,000 tons of materiel to China at a cost of 1,659 men and 594 aircraft.
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.
French colonial troops retreating to the Chinese border after the Japanese coup d'état in March 1945
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Ethnolinguistic map of China
Chinese Muslim cavalry
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü language on the top
Chinese Muslim soldiers
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together
Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)
WWII victory parade at Chongqing on 3 September 1945
Beijing's Peking University, one of the top-ranked universities in China
Japanese troops surrendering to the Chinese
Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010
The Chinese return to Liuzhou in July 1945.
Geographic distribution of religions in China.  
 Chinese folk religion (including Confucianism, Taoism, and groups of Chinese Buddhism)
 Buddhism tout court
 Ethnic minorities' indigenous religions
 Mongolian folk religion
 Northeast China folk religion influenced by Tungus and Manchu shamanism; widespread Shanrendao
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.
China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place
A Moon gate in a Chinese garden.
The Taiwan Strait and the island of Taiwan
The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking opera.
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.
Map showing major regional cuisines of China
Japanese war crime against a Chinese POW
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai
Long March 2F launching Shenzhou spacecraft. China is one of the only three countries with independent human spaceflight capability.
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent and Tang's protectorates
Lihaozhai High School in Jianshui, Yunnan. The sign is in Hani (Latin alphabet), Nisu (Yi script), and Chinese.
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
China topographic map with East Asia countries

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

- Chinese Communist Party

With help from the Soviets and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Chiang organized the military for Sun's Canton Nationalist Government and headed the Whampoa Military Academy.

- Chiang Kai-shek

Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, he mobilized China for the Second Sino-Japanese War.

- Chiang Kai-shek

However, when the right-wing of the KMT, led by Chiang Kai-shek, turned on the CCP and massacred tens of thousands of the party's members, the two parties split and began a prolonged civil war.

- Chinese Communist Party

Support for the CCP continued to grow throughout the Second Sino-Japanese War, and after the Japanese surrender in 1945, the CCP emerged triumphant in the communist revolution against the KMT government.

- Chinese Communist Party

Japan invaded China in 1937, starting the Second Sino-Japanese War and temporarily halting the civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Kuomintang (KMT).

- China

It is also referred to as part of the "Global Anti-Fascist War", which is how World War II is perceived by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the PRC government.

- Second Sino-Japanese War

Later in the same year, Zhang decided to declare his allegiance to the Nationalist government in Nanjing under Chiang Kai-shek, and consequently, China was nominally reunified under one government.

- Second Sino-Japanese War

In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.

- China

He continued to claim sovereignty over all of China, including the territories held by his government and the People's Republic, as well as territory the latter ceded to foreign governments, such as Tuva and Outer Mongolia.

- Chiang Kai-shek

In the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial near the Marco Polo Bridge and in mainland Chinese textbooks, the People's Republic of China (PRC) claims that the Nationalists mostly avoided fighting the Japanese to preserve their strength for a final showdown with the Chinese Communist Party, while the Communists were the main military force in the Chinese resistance efforts.

- Second Sino-Japanese War

3 related topics with Alpha



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Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Revolutionary Army attacking Nanjing in 1911
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938
The National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition
The KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang in 1942
Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War
The retrocession of Taiwan in Taipei on 25 October 1945
The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City (1949–2006), whose imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Office Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance
Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election
Kuomintang public service center in Shilin, Taipei
Lien Chan (middle) and Wu Po-hsiung (second left) and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China when the Pan-Blue coalition visited the mainland in 2005
KMT headquarters in Taipei City before the KMT Central Committee moved in June 2006 to a much more modest Bade building, having sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation
KMT Kinmen headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen County
KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, British Columbia, Canada
KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City
The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world and its United States party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies
KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown
KMT office of Australasia in Sydney, Australia
From left to right, KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition: Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and General Bai Chongxi
Malaysian Chinese Association
Vietnamese Kuomintang
People's Action Party of Vietnam
Taipei Grand Mosque
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924

From 1926 to 1928, the KMT under Chiang Kai-shek successfully led the Northern Expedition against regional warlords and unified the fragmented nation.

From 1937 to 1945, the KMT-ruled Nationalist government led China through the Second Sino-Japanese War against Japan.

By 1949, the KMT was decisively defeated by the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War and withdrew the ROC government to Taiwan, a former Qing territory annexed by the Empire of Japan from 1895 to 1945.

During this period, the KMT oversaw Taiwan's economic development, but also experienced diplomatic setbacks, including the ROC losing its United Nations seat and the United States switching diplomatic recognition to the CPC-led People's Republic of China (PRC) in the 1970s.

Clockwise from top: communist troops at the Battle of Siping; Muslim soldiers of the NRA; Mao Zedong in the 1930s; Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers; CCP general Su Yu inspecting the troops shortly before the Menglianggu campaign

Chinese Civil War

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Clockwise from top: communist troops at the Battle of Siping; Muslim soldiers of the NRA; Mao Zedong in the 1930s; Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers; CCP general Su Yu inspecting the troops shortly before the Menglianggu campaign
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the Republic of China.
NRA soldiers marching
NRA troops firing artillery at Communist forces
Japanese occupation (red) of eastern China near the end of the war, and Communist bases (striped)
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in Chongqing in 1945.
Shangdang Campaign, September–October 1945
Map showing Three Campaigns during the Chinese Civil War
Nationalist warplanes being prepared for an air raid on Communist bases
The PLA enters Beijing in the Pingjin Campaign.
Chinese FT tanks
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and finally, Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Mao Zedong's proclamation of the founding of the People's Republic in 1949
Communist conquest of Hainan Island in 1950
"Forget not that you are in Jǔ"--a rock in Quemoy Island with Chiang Kai-shek's calligraphy signifying the retaking of one's homeland
Monument in memory of the crossing of the Yangtze in Nanjing
Lockheed U-2C 56-6691 wreckage (pilot Chang Liyi) on display at the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution, Beijing
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
The situation in China in 1929: After the Northern Expedition, the KMT had direct control over east and central China, while the rest of China proper as well as Manchuria was under the control of warlords loyal to the Nationalist government.
Map showing the communist-controlled Soviet Zones of China during and after the encirclement campaigns
Route(s) taken by Communist forces during the Long March
A Communist leader addressing survivors of the Long March
Situation in 1947
Situation in the fall of 1948
Situation in the winter of 1948 and 1949
Situation in April to October 1949
Taiwanese side "Reunification under the Three Principles of the People“.
thumb|The Soviet Red Army invaded Manchuria in August 1945.
Chinese Communist soldiers march north to occupy rural Manchuria, 1945.

The Chinese Civil War was fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), lasting intermittently after 1927.

From 1937 to 1945, hostilities were mostly put on hold as the Second United Front fought the Japanese invasion of China with eventual help from the Allies of World War II, but even then co-operation between the KMT and CCP was minimal and armed clashes between them were common.

The Communists gained control of mainland China and established the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, forcing the leadership of the Republic of China to retreat to the island of Taiwan.

In 1923, Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants, for several months of military and political study in Moscow.

Emblem of the People's Liberation Army

People's Liberation Army

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Emblem of the People's Liberation Army
PLA troops entering Beijing in 1949 during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese troops gathered on a T-34/85 or a Type 58 medium tank leaving North Korea in 1958, 5 years after the Korean War ended with an armistice (a ceasefire) in 1953. The banner in the background of the picture bears a slogan (in Chinese) which declares "The Friendship And Unity of the North Korean And Chinese Peoples Are Always Steadfast And Strong!"
Marshal Lin Biao surveying the soldiers during the 10th-anniversary military parade in 1959.
The PLA Honor Guard in Beijing, 2007
The CMC is ceremonially housed in the Ministry of National Defense compound ("August 1st Building")
The five theater commands of the PLA
A Type 99A main battle tank in service with the PLAGF
A PLAN destroyer conducting maritime interdiction operations at RIMPAC 2016
A Chengdu J-20 5th generation stealth fighter
DF-21Ds at the 2015 Victory Parade
A PLA Navy Special Operations Forces marine during a maritime operations exercise in RIMPAC 2014.
The range of the PLA Rocket Force's medium and intercontinental ballistic missiles (2006)
A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2019, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI
PLA Factory No. 6907, Wuhan. The white characters on the blue sign roughly translate to: "Secret/Classified Area, Do Not Enter Unless Invited."
The Central Military Band of the People's Liberation Army of China at the Great Hall of the People. The band is a common performer of the military anthem of the PLA at ceremonial protocol events.
alt=A golden star, along with three Chinese characters, placed on a red background.|PLA
alt=A golden star, along with three Chinese characters, placed on a red background. At the bottom of a flag is a green bar.|Ground Force
alt=A golden star, along with three Chinese characters, placed on a red background. At the bottom of a flag are stripes of blue, white, blue, white and blue.|Navy
alt=A golden star, along with three Chinese characters, placed on a red background. At the bottom of a flag is a sky blue bar.|Air Force
alt=A golden star, along with three Chinese characters, placed on a red background. At the bottom of a flag is a yellow bar.|Rocket Force

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the principal military force of the People's Republic of China and the armed wing of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

The PLA can trace its origins during the republican era to the left-wing units of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT) when they broke away on 1 August 1927 in an uprising against the nationalist government as the Chinese Red Army before being reintegrated into the NRA as units of New Fourth Army and Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The CCP founded their military wing on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang uprising when Communist elements of the National Revolutionary Army rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai and other leftist elements of the Kuomintang after the Shanghai massacre of 1927 by Chiang Kai-shek.