Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
The Communist International published a namesake theoretical magazine in a variety of European languages from 1919 to 1943.
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
The Bolshevik by Boris Kustodiev, 1920
Chiang in the early 1920s
Second Congress of the Communist International
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Painting by Boris Kustodiev representing the festival of the Comintern II Congress on the Uritsky Square (former Palace square) in Petrograd
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
The Comintern membership card of Karl Kilbom
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai's Delegates' Card at the 1935 Comintern's 7th Congress as she was a delegate representing the Indochinese Communist Party
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Sun regained control of Guangdong in early 1923, again with the help of mercenaries from Yunnan and of the Comintern.

- Chiang Kai-shek

After the definite break with Chiang Kai-shek in 1927, Joseph Stalin sent personal emissaries to help organize revolts which at this time failed.

- Communist International
Chiang in 1943

4 related topics with Alpha


Chinese Communist Party

2 links

Founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Site of the first CCP Congress, in the former Shanghai French Concession
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
Chinese communists celebrate Joseph Stalin's birthday, 1949.
A temporary monument displayed in Changsha, Hunan Province, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the CCP's founding
A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai
A billboard advertising Xi Jinping Thought in Shenzhen, Guangdong
The 18th National Congress, convened in November 2012
Front cover of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party
Xi Jinping (second from left) with Enrique Peña Nieto (second from right), the former President of Mexico and a leading member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party
Badge given to party members

In 1921, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao led the founding of the CCP with the help of the Far Eastern Bureau of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Far Eastern Secretariat of the Communist International.

However, when the right-wing of the KMT, led by Chiang Kai-shek, turned on the CCP and massacred tens of thousands of the party's members, the two parties split and began a prolonged civil war.


2 links

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Revolutionary Army attacking Nanjing in 1911
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938
The National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition
The KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang in 1942
Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War
The retrocession of Taiwan in Taipei on 25 October 1945
The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City (1949–2006), whose imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Office Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance
Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election
Kuomintang public service center in Shilin, Taipei
Lien Chan (middle) and Wu Po-hsiung (second left) and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China when the Pan-Blue coalition visited the mainland in 2005
KMT headquarters in Taipei City before the KMT Central Committee moved in June 2006 to a much more modest Bade building, having sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation
KMT Kinmen headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen County
KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, British Columbia, Canada
KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City
The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world and its United States party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies
KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown
KMT office of Australasia in Sydney, Australia
From left to right, KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition: Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and General Bai Chongxi
Malaysian Chinese Association
Vietnamese Kuomintang
People's Action Party of Vietnam
Taipei Grand Mosque
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924

From 1926 to 1928, the KMT under Chiang Kai-shek successfully led the Northern Expedition against regional warlords and unified the fragmented nation.

Soviet advisers—the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern—arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), establishing a Leninist party structure that lasted into the 1990s.

Three Arrows through red flag of Marx-Engles-Lenin


2 links

Political and ideological opposition to communism.

Political and ideological opposition to communism.

Three Arrows through red flag of Marx-Engles-Lenin
White propaganda poster "For united Russia" representing the Bolsheviks as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight
The Freikorps were anti-communist right-wing paramilitaries (which were essential in fighting against and dismantling the Communist Revolution in Germany between 1918 and 1919) who are widely seen as a precursor to Nazism and responsible for the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, the leaders of the Communist Revolution.
Mussolini and the Fascist paramilitary Blackshirts' March on Rome in October 1922
Members of the Lapua Movement assaults a former Red officer and the publisher of the communist newspaper at the Vaasa riot on June 4, 1930, in Vaasa, Finland.
Anti-communist propaganda in West Germany in 1953: "All ways of Marxism lead to Moscow! Therefore CDU"
Herta Müller in 2009
Russian èmigré anti-Bolshevik poster, c. 1932
Nazi anti-Bolshevik poster in German-occupied Estonia
Prior to the June 1990 elections, demonstrators on Wenceslas Square in April gather under a poster where the red star and initials of the KSČ has a swastika painted on top of it while the coat of arms depicted is from before the formation of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Lauri Törni (1919–1965), Finnish-born green beret, captain, who fought against communism in the ranks of three different armies (Finnish Defence Forces, Waffen-SS and United States Army)
German anti-communist propaganda poster
Symbol of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Hungarian flag with the 1949–1956 communist emblem cut out
The flag of Europe was a symbol for Moldovan anti-communists in 2009
"Bolshevik freedom", Polish anti-communist propaganda poster with nude caricature of Leon Trotsky
Polish anti-communist university students
During the Spanish Civil War, Pope Pius XI wrote, "bolshevistic and atheistic Communism, which aims at upsetting the social order and at undermining the very foundations of Christian civilization", had destroyed "as far as possible every church and every monastery".
Spanish prisoners in the Mauthausen Concentration Camp upon being liberated by the United States Army.
Signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression between Nazi Germany and Turkey, 18 June 1941
Chinese Kuomintang troops rounding up communist prisoners for execution in Shanghai
A Hong Kong demonstration in 2009
Bodo League massacre of communists and suspected sympathizers, South Korea, 1950
Augusto Pinochet, an anti-communist Chilean general who overthrew the Marxist government of President Salvador Allende in September 1973
Joseph N. Welch (left) being questioned by Senator Joe McCarthy (right) on 9 June 1954
Cover to the 1947 propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow
John F. Kennedy's 1963 "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in West Berlin
Anti-communists Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, respectively president of the United States and prime minister of the United Kingdom

Since the split of the Communist parties from the socialist Second International to form the Marxist–Leninist Third International, social democrats have been critical of communism for its anti-liberal nature.

Before the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Kuomintang, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party, led by Chiang Kai-shek, was ruling China and strongly opposed the Chinese Communist Party.

Photograph of Trotsky from the cover of the magazine Prozhektor in January 1924

Leon Trotsky

0 links

Russian-Ukrainian Marxist revolutionary, political theorist and politician.

Russian-Ukrainian Marxist revolutionary, political theorist and politician.

Photograph of Trotsky from the cover of the magazine Prozhektor in January 1924
8-year-old Lev Bronstein, 1888
Lev Davidovich Bronstein, 1897
Trotsky's first wife Aleksandra Sokolovskaya with her brother (sitting on the left) and Trotsky (sitting on the right) in 1897
Trotsky in 1902
Police mugshots of Trotsky in 1905 after Soviet members were arrested during a meeting in the Free Economic Society building
Trotsky in prison, awaiting trial, 1906
Trotsky with Alexander Parvus (left) and Leo Deutsch (right) in Saint Peter and Paul Fortress prison at Saint Petersburg in 1906
Trotsky reading the Pravda in Vienna, circa 1910
Trotsky in Vienna
Leon Trotsky with his daughter Nina in 1915
Trotsky arriving in Petrograd by train in May 1917.
Leon Trotsky and Lev Kamenev at Brest-Litovsk negotiations (c. 1917–1918)
Territory lost under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly on 6 January 1918. The Tauride Palace is locked and guarded by Trotsky, Sverdlov, Zinoviev and Lashevich.
Leon Trotsky speaks from the Armoured Train during the Russian Civil War in 1920
An antisemitic 1919 White Army propaganda poster depicting Trotsky as Satan wearing a Pentagram and portraying the Bolsheviks' Chinese supporters as mass murderers. The caption reads, "Peace and Liberty in Sovdepiya".
European theatre of the Russian Civil War in 1918–19
Trotsky with Demyan Bedny near Kazan, 1918
Trotsky with Lenin and Kamenev
Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Lev Kamenev motivate the troops to fight on the Soviet-Polish war. 1 May 1920
Trotsky addressing soldiers of the Red Army during the Polish-Soviet War.
A Polish poster titled "Bolshevik freedom" depicts Trotsky on a pile of skulls and holding a bloody knife, during the Polish–Soviet War of 1920
Béla Kun, Alfred Rosmer, Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Frunze and Sergey Gusev. Kharkov Ukraine 1920.
Mikhail Kalinin and Leon Trotsky greet Red Army troops. Polish–Soviet War.
Trotsky with Vladimir Lenin and Klim Voroshilov among soldiers in Petrograd in 1921.
Red Army troops attack Kronstadt sailors in March 1921.
Leon Trotsky, the People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs USSR, as the Guard of the October revolution on 14 May 1923
Trotsky with Red Army soldiers in Moscow, 1922
Trotsky with Rakovsky, circa 1924
Trotsky in a 1922 cubist portrait by Yury Annenkov – a version of this appeared on one of the earliest covers of Time magazine.
Leon Trotsky with Soviet leaders write the letter of defiance to British Foreign Secretary Marquess Curzon of Kedleston in 1923, in a parody of Ilya Repin's Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
Andrei Bubnov, Kliment Voroshilov, Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Kalinin and Mikhail Frunze attend The October Revolution parade on The Red Square on 7 November 1924
Leon Trotsky and Leonid Serebryakov attend the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union in May 1925
Leon Trotsky addresses a meeting in the House of the Unions in March 1926
Kalinin and Stalin bearing the coffin of Felix Dzerzhinsky on 22 July 1926. Trotsky can be seen over Kalinin's left shoulder.
Trotsky with his wife Natalia and son Lev in Alma Ata, 1928
The publication of Trotsky's autobiography My Life as reported in the Soviet Union in August 1929, with the editors of Projector titled the publication: "On the service of bourgeoisie"
Trotsky's house, the Yanaros mansion on the island of Büyükada in Turkey, as it appears today. Trotsky lived at the house from April 1929 until July 1933.
Trotsky's house in Mexico City from April 1939 until his assassination in August 1940
Trotsky arrives in Mexico, January 1937 with his wife. Artist Frida Kahlo behind them.
James Cannon and Felix Morrow with a bust of Trotsky
Trotsky with American comrades, including Harry DeBoer (left) in Mexico, shortly before his assassination, 1940
The study where Leon Trotsky was assassinated with an ice axe on 20 August 1940
Leon Trotsky's grave in Coyoacán, where his ashes are buried
A Diego Rivera mural depicts Trotsky with Marx and Engels as a true champion of the workers' struggle

In 1938 Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International in opposition to Stalin's Comintern.

Stalin countered Trotskyist criticism by making a secret speech in which he said that Chiang's right-wing Kuomintang were the only ones capable of defeating the imperialists, that Chiang Kai-shek had funding from the rich merchants, and that his forces were to be utilized until squeezed for all usefulness like a lemon before being discarded.