Chiang in 1943
Land controlled by the Republic of China (1946) shown in dark green; land claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of the Republic of China.
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic
Chiang in the early 1920s
Major Chinese warlord coalitions during the "Nanjing Decade".
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Cooperation with Germany
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
China had been at war with Japan since 1931.
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China during 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Beiyang Army troops on parade
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
The NRA during World War II
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Boat traffic and development along Suzhou Creek, Shanghai, 1920
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
A 10 Custom Gold Units bill, 1930
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

From 1928 until 1949 he served as leader of the ROC in mainland China, and from 1949 until 1975, as leader of the ROC in Taiwan.

- Chiang Kai-shek

General Chiang Kai-shek, who became the Chairman of the Kuomintang after Sun's death and subsequent power struggle in 1925, began the Northern Expedition in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government.

- Republic of China (1912–1949)

41 related topics with Alpha

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Kuomintang

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Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Revolutionary Army attacking Nanjing in 1911
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938
The National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition
The KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang in 1942
Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War
The retrocession of Taiwan in Taipei on 25 October 1945
The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City (1949–2006), whose imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Office Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance
Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election
Kuomintang public service center in Shilin, Taipei
Lien Chan (middle) and Wu Po-hsiung (second left) and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China when the Pan-Blue coalition visited the mainland in 2005
KMT headquarters in Taipei City before the KMT Central Committee moved in June 2006 to a much more modest Bade building, having sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation
KMT Kinmen headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen County
KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, British Columbia, Canada
KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City
The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world and its United States party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies
KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown
KMT office of Australasia in Sydney, Australia
From left to right, KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition: Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and General Bai Chongxi
Malaysian Chinese Association
Vietnamese Kuomintang
People's Action Party of Vietnam
Taipei Grand Mosque
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924

It was the dominant party in China during the Republican Era from 1928 to 1949, when most of the Chinese mainland was under its control.

From 1926 to 1928, the KMT under Chiang Kai-shek successfully led the Northern Expedition against regional warlords and unified the fragmented nation.

(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India

Second Sino-Japanese War

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(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
A baby sits in the remains of a Shanghai train station on 'Bloody Saturday', 1937
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Japanese landing near Shanghai, November 1937
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Soviet embassy in Nanjing is being burned down by arson on 1 January 1938.
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto
National Revolutionary Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Map showing the extent of Japanese occupation in 1941 (in red)
Theaters (military operational regions) of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army from late 1938 to early 1940
Wang Jingwei and officers of the Collaborationist Chinese Army
Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Taierzhuang, March–April 1938
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march to the front in 1939.
Eighth Route Army Commander Zhu De with a KMT "Blue Sky, White Sun" emblem cap
115th Division of the Eighth Route Army Lieutenant General (NRA rank) Lin Biao in NRA uniform
War declaration against Japan by the Chongqing Nationalist Government on 9 December 1941
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang with Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell in 1942, Burma
A United States poster from the United China Relief organization advocating aid to China.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
I-16 with Chinese insignia. The I-16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Air Force and Soviet volunteers.
Flying Tigers Commander Claire Lee Chennault
A "blood chit" issued to American Volunteer Group pilots requesting all Chinese to offer rescue and protection
Free Thai, American and Chinese military officers in China during the war
The India–China airlift delivered approximately 650,000 tons of materiel to China at a cost of 1,659 men and 594 aircraft.
French colonial troops retreating to the Chinese border after the Japanese coup d'état in March 1945
Chinese Muslim cavalry
Chinese Muslim soldiers
WWII victory parade at Chongqing on 3 September 1945
Japanese troops surrendering to the Chinese
The Chinese return to Liuzhou in July 1945.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place
The Taiwan Strait and the island of Taiwan
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.
Japanese war crime against a Chinese POW
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan.

Later in the same year, Zhang decided to declare his allegiance to the Nationalist government in Nanjing under Chiang Kai-shek, and consequently, China was nominally reunified under one government.

Clockwise from top: communist troops at the Battle of Siping; Muslim soldiers of the NRA; Mao Zedong in the 1930s; Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers; CCP general Su Yu inspecting the troops shortly before the Menglianggu campaign

Chinese Civil War

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Clockwise from top: communist troops at the Battle of Siping; Muslim soldiers of the NRA; Mao Zedong in the 1930s; Chiang Kai-shek inspecting soldiers; CCP general Su Yu inspecting the troops shortly before the Menglianggu campaign
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the Republic of China.
NRA soldiers marching
NRA troops firing artillery at Communist forces
Japanese occupation (red) of eastern China near the end of the war, and Communist bases (striped)
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in Chongqing in 1945.
Shangdang Campaign, September–October 1945
Map showing Three Campaigns during the Chinese Civil War
Nationalist warplanes being prepared for an air raid on Communist bases
The PLA enters Beijing in the Pingjin Campaign.
Chinese FT tanks
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and finally, Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Mao Zedong's proclamation of the founding of the People's Republic in 1949
Communist conquest of Hainan Island in 1950
"Forget not that you are in Jǔ"--a rock in Quemoy Island with Chiang Kai-shek's calligraphy signifying the retaking of one's homeland
Monument in memory of the crossing of the Yangtze in Nanjing
Lockheed U-2C 56-6691 wreckage (pilot Chang Liyi) on display at the Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution, Beijing
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
The situation in China in 1929: After the Northern Expedition, the KMT had direct control over east and central China, while the rest of China proper as well as Manchuria was under the control of warlords loyal to the Nationalist government.
Map showing the communist-controlled Soviet Zones of China during and after the encirclement campaigns
Route(s) taken by Communist forces during the Long March
A Communist leader addressing survivors of the Long March
Situation in 1947
Situation in the fall of 1948
Situation in the winter of 1948 and 1949
Situation in April to October 1949
Taiwanese side "Reunification under the Three Principles of the People“.
thumb|The Soviet Red Army invaded Manchuria in August 1945.
Chinese Communist soldiers march north to occupy rural Manchuria, 1945.

The Chinese Civil War was fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), lasting intermittently after 1927.

In 1923, Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants, for several months of military and political study in Moscow.

Nanjing

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Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Purple Mountain or Zijin Shan, located to the east of the walled city of Nanjing, is the origin of the nickname "Jinling". The water in the front is Xuanwu Lake
A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb (AD518). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.
The Śarīra pagoda in Qixia Temple. It was built in AD601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.
Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty
The Ming Palace, also known as the "Forbidden City of Nanjing", was the imperial palace of the early Ming dynasty, when Nanjing was the capital of China.
Nanjing City Wall near Xuanwumen Gate
Mochou Lake
The Presidential Palace of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927
Japanese soldiers entering the walled city of Nanjing through the Gate of China
Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Map including Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING) (Walled)) (AMS, 1955)
Map of Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING))
Nanjing Region – Lower Yangtze Basin and Eastern China.
Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple.
7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog
People's Government of Nanjing City
Qinhuai River in 1920s
Old city of Nanjing 'Old Gate East'
Xinjiekou, Nanjing
Naning city centre in May 1987
Nanjing Zifeng Tower and the Purple Mountain in the background
Nanjing South Railway Station
Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge
Nanjing Metro Construction Plan by 2022
Nanjing Lukou International Airport, NKG
Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge
Jiangnan Examination Hall
Kunqu
Nanjing Library
Nanjing Museum
Qinhuai River
Central Stadium
Nanjing Olympic Sports Center
City Wall of Nanjing and Yijiangmen Gate
East Gate of China
Qinhuai River
Jiming Temple
Jinghai Temple and Yuejiang Tower
Xuanwu Lake
The Porcelain Pagoda of Nanjing
Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake
Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Tower of Linggu Temple
Qixia Temple
Former Presidential Palace
Former National Assembly Building
Yihe Road
Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings
Former Capital Hotel
Former Academia Sinica Buildings
Gate of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery
Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain
National Purple Mountain Observatory
Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs
Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders
Jinling Hotel
Nanjing Youth Olympic Towers
Nanjing University, Gulou campus
Nanjing University, Xianlin campus
Southeast University, Sipailou campus
Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus

Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317 to 589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War.

Clockwise from top-left: Chiang inspecting soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army; NRA troops marching north; an NRA artillery unit in combat; civilians showing support for the NRA; peasants volunteering to join the expedition; NRA soldiers preparing to launch an attack.

Northern Expedition

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Military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.

Military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.

Clockwise from top-left: Chiang inspecting soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army; NRA troops marching north; an NRA artillery unit in combat; civilians showing support for the NRA; peasants volunteering to join the expedition; NRA soldiers preparing to launch an attack.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, commander-in-chief of the NRA, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the KMT and China.
Chiang Kai-shek prepares to leave Guangzhou. Those pictured include Mikhail Borodin, on the far left, Vasily Blyukher in military uniform on the right, and Chiang himself in uniform, to the right of Blyukher.
NRA troops preparing to attack Wuchang
NRA forces enter the British concession at Hankou, October 1926
Routes of the Northern Expedition
Members of the National Pacification military government, from left to right: Pan Fu, Gungsangnorbu, Wu Junsheng, Sun Chuanfang, Zhang Zuoxiang, and Zhang Zongchang
Mikhail Borodin making a speech in Wuhan, 1927
Feng Yuxiang meets with Chiang Kai-shek in Xuzhou on 19 June 1927
Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan started to fight the NPA in October 1927, strengthening the KMT military position
Beiyang warlord soldiers retreating by railway
When Zhang Xueliang (right) decided to make peace with the nationalist government, his former subordinates Zhang Zongchang (middle) and Chu Yupu (left) unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow him.
The leaders of the Northern Expedition gather on 6 July 1928 at Sun Yat-sen's mausoleum in the Temple of Azure Clouds, Beijing, to commemorate the completion of their mission.

The expedition was led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and was divided into two phases.

Before his death in March 1925, Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Republic of China and co-founder of the KMT, was supportive of Sino-Soviet co-operation, which had involved forming the First United Front with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen

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Sun Yat-sen
Photograph of Sun Yat-sen, c. 1911
Silver coin: 1 yuan - Sun Yat Sen, 1927
Sun Yat-sen (back row, fourth from right) and his family
Sun (second from left) and his friends the Four Bandits: Yeung Hok-ling (left), Chan Siu-bak (middle), Yau Lit (right), and Guan Jingliang (關景良, standing) at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, circa 1888
Plaque in London marking the site of a house at 4 Warwick Court, WC1 where Sun Yat-sen lived while in exile
Letter from Sun Yat-sen to James Cantlie announcing to him that he has assumed the Presidency of the Provisional Republican Government of China, dated 21 January 1912
A letter with Sun's seal commencing the Tongmenghui in Hong Kong
Interior of the Wan Qing Yuan featuring Sun's items and photos
The Sun Yat-sen Museum in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, where he planned the Xinhai Revolution.
The Revolutionary Army of the Wuchang uprising fighting in the Battle of Yangxia
"Portrait of Sun Yat-sen" (1921) Li Tiefu Oil on Canvas 93×71.7cm
(L-R): Liao Zhongkai, Chiang Kai-shek, Sun Yat-sen and Soong Ching-ling at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924
Sun Yat-sen (seated) and Chiang Kai-shek
Sun (seated, right) and his wife Soong Ching-ling (seated next to him) in Kobe, Japan in 1924
Chinese generals at the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in 1928 after the Northern Expedition. From right: Cheng Jin (何成浚), Zhang Zuobao (張作寶), Chen Diaoyuan (陳調元), Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida (馬四達), and Bai Chongxi.
Statue in the Mausoleum, Kuomintang flag on the ceiling
Lu Muzhen (1867–1952), Sun's first wife from 1885 to 1915
Kaoru Otsuki, Sun's Japanese wife
Fumiko, the daughter of Sun and Kaoru
Aerial perspective of Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall in central Singapore. Taken in 2016
Sun Yat-Sen monument in Chinatown area of Los Angeles, California
Sun Yat-Sen plaza in the Chinese Quarter of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Sun Yat-sen tribute in Tiananmen Square, 2010
Mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen, Nanjing.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Guangzhou.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Centre, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
A marker on the Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail on Hong Kong Island

Sun Yat-sen (born Sun Te-ming; 12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925), also known as Sun Yat-sun, Sun Chung-shan, Sun Yi-hsien, Sun Wen, Sun Jih-hsin, Suen Yat-sen, Suen Yat-sun, Sun Yixian and Sun Rixin, was a Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China).

He did not live to see his party unify the country under his successor, Chiang Kai-shek, in the Northern Expedition.

Taiwan

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Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years.

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years.

A young Tsou man
Fort Zeelandia, the Governor's residence in Dutch Formosa
Hunting deer, painted in 1746
Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident in 1915 from the Tainan jail to court.
General Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of General Order No. 1 from Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang from 1925 until his death in 1975
With Chiang Kai-shek, US president Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.
In 1988, Lee Teng-hui became the first president of the Republic of China born in Taiwan and was the first to be directly elected in 1996.
Student protest in Taipei against a controversial trade agreement with China in March 2014
A satellite image of Taiwan, showing it is mostly mountainous in the east, with gently sloping plains in the west. The Penghu Islands are west of the main island.
Köppen climate classification of Taiwan
Dabajian Mountain
2015 Ma–Xi meeting
ROC embassy in Eswatini
The flag used by Taiwan at the Olympic Games, where it competes as "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北)
Taiwan's popularly elected president resides in the Presidential Office Building, Taipei, originally built in the Japanese era for colonial governors
Tsai Ing-wen, President of the Republic of China
Su Tseng-chang, Premier of the Republic of China
Taiwanese-born Tangwai ("independent") politician Wu San-lien (second left) celebrates with supporters his landslide victory of 65.5 per cent in Taipei's first mayoral election in January 1951.
Results from an identity survey conducted each year from 1992 to 2020 by the Election Study Center, National Chengchi University. Responses are Taiwanese (green), Chinese (red) or Both Taiwanese and Chinese (hatched). No response is shown as grey.
Republic of China Army’s Thunderbolt-2000, a multiple rocket launcher
The C-130H in Songshan AFB
Taipei 101 held the world record for the highest skyscraper from 2004 to 2010.
Neihu Technology Park in Taipei
Rice paddy fields in Yilan County
China Airlines aircraft line-up at Taoyuan International Airport
Children at a Taiwanese school
Population density map of Taiwan (residents per square kilometre)
Original geographic distributions of Taiwanese indigenous peoples
Most commonly used home language in each area, darker in proportion to the lead over the next most common
National Taiwan University Hospital
Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra onstage in the National Concert Hall
Taiwanese writer, literary critic and politician Wang Tuoh
Yani Tseng with the 2011 Women's British Open trophy
Tai Tzu-ying, the current world No.1 in BWF at the 2018 Chinese Taipei Open
St. John's Catholic Church in Banqiao District, New Taipei
Countries maintaining relations with the ROCdiplomatic relations and embassy in Taipei
unofficial relations (see text)
The Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) is the top-tier professional baseball league in Taiwan

The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the Allies of World War II following the surrender of Japan in 1945.

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), led by CCP Chairman Mao Zedong.

China

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Country in East Asia.

Country in East Asia.

China (today's Guangdong), Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a marble bridge) are all shown as separate regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius
10,000 years old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 BCE)
Yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century BCE)
China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent
199x199px
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers. The image shows a celebration ceremony inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City after the signing of the Boxer Protocol in 1901.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, one of the first republics in Asia.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong toasting together in 1945 following the end of World War II
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.
The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests was ended by a military-led massacre which brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Satellite image of China from NASA WorldWind
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for mainland China.
A giant panda, China's most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan
The Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE
Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world.
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, one of the first Chinese spaceports
Internet penetration rates in China in the context of East Asia and Southeast Asia, 1995–2012
The Duge Bridge is the highest bridge in the world.
The Beijing Daxing International Airport features the world's largest single-building airport terminal.
The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is the world's busiest container port since 2010.
A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.
Ethnolinguistic map of China
A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü language on the top
Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)
Beijing's Peking University, one of the top-ranked universities in China
Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010
Geographic distribution of religions in China.  
 Chinese folk religion (including Confucianism, Taoism, and groups of Chinese Buddhism)
 Buddhism tout court
 Islam
 Ethnic minorities' indigenous religions
 Mongolian folk religion
 Northeast China folk religion influenced by Tungus and Manchu shamanism; widespread Shanrendao
Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.
A Moon gate in a Chinese garden.
The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking opera.
Map showing major regional cuisines of China
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.
Long March 2F launching Shenzhou spacecraft. China is one of the only three countries with independent human spaceflight capability.
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent and Tang's protectorates
Lihaozhai High School in Jianshui, Yunnan. The sign is in Hani (Latin alphabet), Nisu (Yi script), and Chinese.
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
China topographic map with East Asia countries

The Chinese monarchy collapsed in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when the Republic of China (ROC) replaced the Qing dynasty.

In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.

The Beiyang Army in training

Warlord Era

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Period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

Period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

The Beiyang Army in training
Zhang Zuolin (left) and Wu Peifu (right), two of the most powerful strongmen of the Warlord Era
Control of railroads was of great importance to the warlords.
Zhang Zongchang, one of the most infamous Chinese warlords
Bandits in northwestern China, around 1915
Warlord soldiers train with dao swords sometime in the 1920s. Some warlord armies, especially those in southern China, were badly armed, paid and supplied, and often lacked even basic necessities, such as guns, ammunition, and food.
Zhang Zuolin with two of his sons, both wearing expensive miniature uniforms
Renault FT of the Fengtian clique during Northern Expedition
This military symbol was based on the Five Races Under One Union flag.
The party emblem of the Kuomintang
Map of the campaigns of the Northern expedition of the Kuomintang
In course of the Central Plains War, several warlords attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's newly formed Nationalist government; despite the defeat of the anti-Kuomintang forces, warlords continued to remain in power in much of China until the 1940s

In historiography, the Warlord Era began in 1916 upon the death of Yuan Shikai, the de facto dictator of China after the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China in 1912.

The Warlord Era ended in 1928 when the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek officially unified China through the Northern Expedition, marking the beginning of the Nanjing decade.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

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Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with the Republic of China by 1937.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell.