(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India
Chiang in 1943
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Allied Commander-in-Chief in the China theatre from 1942 to 1945
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Japanese troops entering Shenyang during the Mukden Incident
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Japanese Empire's territorial expansion
Chiang in the early 1920s
A baby sits in the remains of a Shanghai train station on 'Bloody Saturday', 1937
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek announced the Kuomintang policy of resistance against Japan at Lushan on 10 July 1937, three days after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Japanese landing near Shanghai, November 1937
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Japanese troops in the ruins of Shanghai
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Soviet embassy in Nanjing is being burned down by arson on 1 January 1938.
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
National Revolutionary Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Map showing the extent of Japanese occupation in 1941 (in red)
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Theaters (military operational regions) of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army from late 1938 to early 1940
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Wang Jingwei and officers of the Collaborationist Chinese Army
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Chinese soldiers in house-to-house fighting in the Battle of Taierzhuang, March–April 1938
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
National Revolutionary Army soldiers march to the front in 1939.
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Eighth Route Army Commander Zhu De with a KMT "Blue Sky, White Sun" emblem cap
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
115th Division of the Eighth Route Army Lieutenant General (NRA rank) Lin Biao in NRA uniform
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
War declaration against Japan by the Chongqing Nationalist Government on 9 December 1941
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Madame Chiang with Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell in 1942, Burma
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
A United States poster from the United China Relief organization advocating aid to China.
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
I-16 with Chinese insignia. The I-16 was the main fighter plane used by the Chinese Air Force and Soviet volunteers.
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Flying Tigers Commander Claire Lee Chennault
Duke of Zhou
A "blood chit" issued to American Volunteer Group pilots requesting all Chinese to offer rescue and protection
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Free Thai, American and Chinese military officers in China during the war
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
The India–China airlift delivered approximately 650,000 tons of materiel to China at a cost of 1,659 men and 594 aircraft.
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
French colonial troops retreating to the Chinese border after the Japanese coup d'état in March 1945
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chinese Muslim cavalry
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Chinese Muslim soldiers
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together
WWII victory parade at Chongqing on 3 September 1945
Japanese troops surrendering to the Chinese
The Chinese return to Liuzhou in July 1945.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
China War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial Museum on the site where the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place
The Taiwan Strait and the island of Taiwan
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.
Japanese war crime against a Chinese POW
Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces with gas masks and rubber gloves during a chemical attack near Chapei in the Battle of Shanghai
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang

Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, he mobilized China for the Second Sino-Japanese War.

- Chiang Kai-shek

Later in the same year, Zhang decided to declare his allegiance to the Nationalist government in Nanjing under Chiang Kai-shek, and consequently, China was nominally reunified under one government.

- Second Sino-Japanese War
(clockwise from top left)Imperial Japanese Navy landing force in military gas masks in the Battle of Shanghai

Japanese Type 92 heavy machine gunners during Operation Ichi-Go

Victims of the Nanjing Massacre on the shore of the Qinhuai River

Chinese machine gun nest in the Battle of Wuhan

Japanese aircraft during the bombing of Chongqing

Chinese Expeditionary Force marching in India

46 related topics with Alpha

Overall

French Indochina

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Grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia until its demise in 1954.

Grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia until its demise in 1954.

Map of French Indochina, excluding Guangzhouwan
Expansion of French Indochina (violet)
The emblem and seal of the Government-General.
Map of French Indochina, excluding Guangzhouwan
Siamese Army troops in the disputed territory of Laos in 1893
The Presidential Palace, in Hanoi, built between 1900 and 1906 to house the Governor-General of Indochina
Occupation of Trat by French troops in 1904
French Indochina around 1933
A propaganda painting in Hanoi, 1942
Members of the 1st Foreign Parachute Heavy Mortar Company during the Indochina War
Indochina in 1954
Indochina in 1891 (from Le Monde illustré)
The Cathédrale Saint-Joseph de Hanoï, inspired by Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris
Subdivisions of French Indochina
Paul Doumer Bridge, now Long Biên Bridge.
Musée Louis Finot in Hanoi, built by Ernest Hébrard in 1932, now the National Museum of Vietnamese History
A report by the Viện cơ mật on the financial and military aid given by the Nguyễn dynasty to Great France in the year Khải Định 2 (1917). Note how the document ends with the phrases Đại Pháp vạn tuế, Đông Dương vạn tuế (大法萬歲, 東洋萬歲).

This allowed Japan better access to China in the Second Sino-Japanese War against the forces of Chiang Kai-shek, but it was also part of Japan's strategy for dominion over the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

Lu Han

Lu Han (general)

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Chinese general of Yi ethnicity, who served in important military and political positions under both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China.

Chinese general of Yi ethnicity, who served in important military and political positions under both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China.

Lu Han
Lu Han residence
Lu Han in uniform
Lu Han

A graduate of the Yunnan Military Academy, Lu Han notably commanded the 1st Group Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

In 1945, Long Yun was overthrown and removed from the governorship of Yunnan by Chiang Kai-shek.

Woodcut print by Huang Rong-can, "The Terrible Inspection" describing the February 28 Incident massacre in 1947

Taiwan independence movement

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Political movement which advocates the formal declaration of an independent and sovereign Taiwanese state, as opposed to Chinese unification or the status quo in Cross-Strait relations.

Political movement which advocates the formal declaration of an independent and sovereign Taiwanese state, as opposed to Chinese unification or the status quo in Cross-Strait relations.

Woodcut print by Huang Rong-can, "The Terrible Inspection" describing the February 28 Incident massacre in 1947
"Terror In Formosa", a news article from The Daily News of Perth, reported the status in March 1947.
Banner displaying the slogan "UN for Taiwan"
Republic of China passport mentioning Taiwan since 2003 in order to distinguish it from the People's Republic of China passport. In 2020, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs launched a redesigned passport that highlights "Taiwan"
An example of a "Taiwan passport", which is typically not accepted in place of the R.O.C. passport
Parade of Taiwan independence supporters
Anti-Taiwan independence protesters in Washington, D.C. during Lee Teng-hui's visit in 2005

At the conclusion of World War II and the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Taiwan was placed under the control of the Republic of China (ROC) on behalf of the WWII Allies.

The Anti-communist Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek, President of the Republic of China on Taiwan, believed the Americans were going to plot a coup against him along with Taiwan Independence.

Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe (left) and China's paramount leader Xi Jinping (right) meet in Da Nang, Vietnam in November 2017.

China–Japan relations

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China–Japan relations or Sino–Japanese relations (日中関係) are the bilateral relations between China and Japan.

China–Japan relations or Sino–Japanese relations (日中関係) are the bilateral relations between China and Japan.

Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe (left) and China's paramount leader Xi Jinping (right) meet in Da Nang, Vietnam in November 2017.
Embassy of China in Japan.
Embassy of Japan in China.
The Japanese army launches a general offensive on Tientsin castle during the Boxer Rebellion, 1900.
Japanese march into Zhengyangmen of Beijing after capturing the city in July 1937.
The Hiroshima-Sichuan Sino-Japanese Friendship Convention Center (Japanese: 広島・四川中日友好会館, Simplified Chinese: 广岛・四川中日友好会馆) in Wuhou District, Chengdu
Japanese ODA to China (1979–2013)

Japan eventually took advantage of such weaknesses by invading China, including the First Sino-Japanese War and the Second Sino-Japanese War.

However, Chiang Kai-shek waived reparations claims for the war when the ROC concluded the Treaty of Taipei with Japan in 1952.

Governor Sheng Shicai in the National Revolutionary Army general's uniform

Sheng Shicai

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Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944.

Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944.

Governor Sheng Shicai in the National Revolutionary Army general's uniform
Sheng Shicai in c. 1928
Sheng's rival Ma Zhongying
Flag of Xinjiang, based on the flag of the Soviet Union, adopted in 1934
Soviet invasion in Kashgar
Abdul Niyaz with his soldiers in Kashgar during the rebellion
Sheng Shicai (fourth from right) with Garegin Presov (fifth from right) and Chinese Minister of Education Chen Lifu (fifth from left) in Ürümqi, October 1937
Sheng Shicai (first row, third from left) at the founding of the Association for Promotion of the Han Chinese Culture
Lazar Kaganovich
Mao Zemin, Mao Zedong's brother, executed by Sheng Shicai in 1943
Kuomintang in Xinjiang in 1942

Although he supported the anti-Zhang coup, he was able to return to Japan with the support of Feng Yuxiang and Chiang Kai-Shek, from whom he received financial help and considered him as his patron.

As the full-scale War of Resistance/WWII broke out between China and the Empire of Japan, the Chinese government entered the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in a joint war effort against imperial Japan.

Yasuji Okamura

Yasuji Okamura

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General of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.

General of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.

Yasuji Okamura
Okamura (fourth from right) during the surrender of Japan at Nanjing

He was assigned to China in 1923, and served as a military advisor to Chinese warlord general Sun Chuanfang, in this capacity, he gathered many vital information and war maps, which later were used in the military operations of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek then retained him as a military adviser for the Nationalist Government.