Communists being rounded up during the purges
Chiang in 1943
Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture
Chiang Kai-shek at the beginning of the Northern Expedition in 1926.
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Yellow Crane Tower
Public beheading of a communist in Shanghai
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Wuhan in 1864
Nanking Nationalist Government was established in 4.18, the head of government was Chiang Kai-shek.
Chiang in the early 1920s
Foreign concessions along the Hankow Bund c. 1900.
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Wuchang Uprising Memorial, the original site of revolutionary government in 1911
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Present-day Wuhan area in 1915
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
A map of Wuhan painted by the Japanese in 1930, with Hankou being the most prosperous sector
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
The gunboat Zhongshan
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
Chiang Kai-Shek inspecting Chinese soldiers in Wuhan as Japanese forces approach the city
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
People's Liberation Army troops at Zhongshan Avenue, Hankou on May 16, 1949
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in Wuhan, Mao Zedong envisions "walls of stone" to be erected upstream.
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Map including the Wuhan area (AMS, 1953)
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Hongshan District
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
The main gate of Wuhan Municipal Party Committee
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
A night sight near a modern shopping mall in Hongshan District
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
A tram in University Science Park Station
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
Tianhe Airport Terminal 3
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Happy Valley Wuhan amusement park
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, made in 433 BC, now on display at the Hubei Provincial Museum in Wuhan
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
The old library (center), dorm (below), and schools of literature and law (left and right) of Wuhan University
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
The Institute for Advanced Studies at Wuhan University
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
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Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Fried hongshan caitai (洪山菜薹)
Duke of Zhou
Doupi on the left and Re-gan mian on the right
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Second bridge
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
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Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Li Na, a former professional tennis player and two-time Grand Slam champion, serving at Wimbledon 2008, 1st round against Anastasia Rodionova
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
President Li Yuanhong
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Baotong Buddhist Temple
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together
Gude Buddhist Temple
Thanksgiving Protestant Church
Holy Family Catholic Church

The Shanghai massacre of 12 April 1927, the April 12 Purge or the April 12 Incident as it is commonly known in China, was the violent suppression of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) organizations and leftist elements in Shanghai by forces supporting General Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party, or KMT).

- Shanghai massacre

The purge led to an open split between left and right wing factions in the KMT, with Chiang Kai-shek establishing himself as the leader of the right wing faction based in Nanjing, in opposition to the original left-wing KMT government based in Wuhan led by Wang Jingwei.

- Shanghai massacre

Midway through the Northern Expedition, the KMT–CCP alliance broke down and Chiang massacred communists inside the party, triggering a civil war with the CCP (Chinese Communist Party), which he eventually lost in 1949.

- Chiang Kai-shek

The split was partially motivated by the purge of the Communists within the party, which marked the end of the First United Front, and Chiang Kai-shek briefly stepped down as the commander of the National Revolutionary Army.

- Wuhan

The NRA branched into three divisions: to the west was the returned Wang Jingwei, who led a column to take Wuhan; Bai Chongxi's column went east to take Shanghai; Chiang himself led in the middle route, planning to take Nanjing before pressing ahead to capture Beijing.

- Chiang Kai-shek
Communists being rounded up during the purges

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Overall

Clockwise from top-left: Chiang inspecting soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army; NRA troops marching north; an NRA artillery unit in combat; civilians showing support for the NRA; peasants volunteering to join the expedition; NRA soldiers preparing to launch an attack.

Northern Expedition

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Military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.

Military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.

Clockwise from top-left: Chiang inspecting soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army; NRA troops marching north; an NRA artillery unit in combat; civilians showing support for the NRA; peasants volunteering to join the expedition; NRA soldiers preparing to launch an attack.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, commander-in-chief of the NRA, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the KMT and China.
Chiang Kai-shek prepares to leave Guangzhou. Those pictured include Mikhail Borodin, on the far left, Vasily Blyukher in military uniform on the right, and Chiang himself in uniform, to the right of Blyukher.
NRA troops preparing to attack Wuchang
NRA forces enter the British concession at Hankou, October 1926
Routes of the Northern Expedition
Members of the National Pacification military government, from left to right: Pan Fu, Gungsangnorbu, Wu Junsheng, Sun Chuanfang, Zhang Zuoxiang, and Zhang Zongchang
Mikhail Borodin making a speech in Wuhan, 1927
Feng Yuxiang meets with Chiang Kai-shek in Xuzhou on 19 June 1927
Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan started to fight the NPA in October 1927, strengthening the KMT military position
Beiyang warlord soldiers retreating by railway
When Zhang Xueliang (right) decided to make peace with the nationalist government, his former subordinates Zhang Zongchang (middle) and Chu Yupu (left) unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow him.
The leaders of the Northern Expedition gather on 6 July 1928 at Sun Yat-sen's mausoleum in the Temple of Azure Clouds, Beijing, to commemorate the completion of their mission.

The expedition was led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and was divided into two phases.

The first phase ended in a 1927 political split between two factions of the KMT: the right-leaning Nanjing faction, led by Chiang, and the left-leaning faction in Wuhan, led by Wang Jingwei.

The split was partially motivated by Chiang's purging of communists within the KMT, which marked the end of the First United Front.

Kuomintang

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Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Revolutionary Army attacking Nanjing in 1911
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938
The National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition
The KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang in 1942
Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War
The retrocession of Taiwan in Taipei on 25 October 1945
The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City (1949–2006), whose imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Office Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance
Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election
Kuomintang public service center in Shilin, Taipei
Lien Chan (middle) and Wu Po-hsiung (second left) and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China when the Pan-Blue coalition visited the mainland in 2005
KMT headquarters in Taipei City before the KMT Central Committee moved in June 2006 to a much more modest Bade building, having sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation
KMT Kinmen headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen County
KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, British Columbia, Canada
KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City
The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world and its United States party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies
KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown
KMT office of Australasia in Sydney, Australia
From left to right, KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition: Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and General Bai Chongxi
Malaysian Chinese Association
Vietnamese Kuomintang
People's Action Party of Vietnam
Taipei Grand Mosque
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924

From 1926 to 1928, the KMT under Chiang Kai-shek successfully led the Northern Expedition against regional warlords and unified the fragmented nation.

Wang Jing Wei, who led the KMT leftist allies, took the city of Wuhan in January 1927.

Chiang's expulsion of the CCP and their Soviet advisers, marked by the Shanghai massacre on 12 April, led to the beginning of the Chinese Civil War.

Wang Jingwei

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Chinese politician.

Chinese politician.

Wang Jingwei in his twenties.
Former residence of Wang Jingwei in Nanjing.
Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-Shek in 1926
Wang Jingwei (second from left) and Chen Bijun (far left) in British Malaya, 1935.
Wang Jingwei on a 1935 cover of Time magazine
Wang receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
Hideki Tojo and Wang Jingwei meet in 1942

He was initially a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang, leading a government in Wuhan in opposition to the right-wing government in Nanjing, but later became increasingly anti-communist after his efforts to collaborate with the Chinese Communist Party ended in political failure.

After Sun's death in 1925 Wang engaged in a political struggle with Chiang Kai-shek for control over the Kuomintang, but lost.

Chiang Kai-shek occupied Shanghai in April 1927, and began a bloody suppression of suspected communists known as the "White Terror".

Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen

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Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China).

Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China).

Sun Yat-sen
Photograph of Sun Yat-sen, c. 1911
Silver coin: 1 yuan - Sun Yat Sen, 1927
Sun Yat-sen (back row, fourth from right) and his family
Sun (second from left) and his friends the Four Bandits: Yeung Hok-ling (left), Chan Siu-bak (middle), Yau Lit (right), and Guan Jingliang (關景良, standing) at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, circa 1888
Plaque in London marking the site of a house at 4 Warwick Court, WC1 where Sun Yat-sen lived while in exile
Letter from Sun Yat-sen to James Cantlie announcing to him that he has assumed the Presidency of the Provisional Republican Government of China, dated 21 January 1912
A letter with Sun's seal commencing the Tongmenghui in Hong Kong
Interior of the Wan Qing Yuan featuring Sun's items and photos
The Sun Yat-sen Museum in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, where he planned the Xinhai Revolution.
The Revolutionary Army of the Wuchang uprising fighting in the Battle of Yangxia
"Portrait of Sun Yat-sen" (1921) Li Tiefu Oil on Canvas 93×71.7cm
(L-R): Liao Zhongkai, Chiang Kai-shek, Sun Yat-sen and Soong Ching-ling at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924
Sun Yat-sen (seated) and Chiang Kai-shek
Sun (seated, right) and his wife Soong Ching-ling (seated next to him) in Kobe, Japan in 1924
Chinese generals at the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in 1928 after the Northern Expedition. From right: Cheng Jin (何成浚), Zhang Zuobao (張作寶), Chen Diaoyuan (陳調元), Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida (馬四達), and Bai Chongxi.
Statue in the Mausoleum, Kuomintang flag on the ceiling
Lu Muzhen (1867–1952), Sun's first wife from 1885 to 1915
Kaoru Otsuki, Sun's Japanese wife
Fumiko, the daughter of Sun and Kaoru
Aerial perspective of Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall in central Singapore. Taken in 2016
Sun Yat-Sen monument in Chinatown area of Los Angeles, California
Sun Yat-Sen plaza in the Chinese Quarter of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Sun Yat-sen tribute in Tiananmen Square, 2010
Mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen, Nanjing.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Guangzhou.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Centre, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
A marker on the Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail on Hong Kong Island

He did not live to see his party unify the country under his successor, Chiang Kai-shek, in the Northern Expedition.

Between 1912 and 1927 three governments were set up in South China: the Provisional government in Nanjing (1912), the Military government in Guangzhou (1921–1925), and the National government in Guangzhou and later Wuhan (1925–1927).

When the Communists and the Kuomintang split in 1927, marking the start of the Chinese Civil War, each group claimed to be his true heirs, a conflict that continued through World War II.