A report on Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

- Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang in 1943

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H. H. Kung

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Chinese banker and politician in the early 20th century.

Chinese banker and politician in the early 20th century.

The Kung family residence in Taigu County, Shanxi Province
Kung traveled to Germany in 1937, attempting to enlist German aid against the Empire of Japan.

He married Soong Ai-ling, the eldest of the three Soong sisters; the other two married President Sun Yat-sen and the latter President Chiang Kai-shek.

Dai Li

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Chinese spymaster.

Chinese spymaster.

Born Dai Chunfeng (Tai Chun-feng; 戴春風) in Bao'an, Jiangshan, Zhejiang province, he studied at the Whampoa Military Academy, where Chiang Kai-shek served as Chief Commandant, and later became head of Chiang's Military Intelligence Service.

The Roaring Lion, a portrait by Yousuf Karsh at the Canadian Parliament, December 1941

Winston Churchill

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British statesman, soldier and writer who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, during the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955.

British statesman, soldier and writer who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, during the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955.

The Roaring Lion, a portrait by Yousuf Karsh at the Canadian Parliament, December 1941
Jennie Spencer Churchill with her two sons, Jack (left) and Winston (right) in 1889.
Churchill in the military dress uniform of the 4th Queen's Own Hussars at Aldershot in 1895.
Churchill in 1900 around the time of his first election to Parliament.
Churchill in 1904 when he "crossed the floor".
Churchill and German Kaiser Wilhelm II during a military manoeuvre near Breslau, Silesia, in 1906.
Churchill and his fiancée Clementine Hozier shortly before their marriage in 1908.
Churchill (second left) photographed at the Siege of Sidney Street.
As First Lord of the Admiralty, Churchill's London residency was Admiralty House (music room pictured).
Churchill commanding the 6th Battalion, the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1916. His second-in-command, Archibald Sinclair, is seated on the left.
Churchill meets female workers at Georgetown's filling works near Glasgow in October 1918.
Churchill as Secretary of State for the Colonies during his visit to Mandatory Palestine, Tel Aviv, 1921.
Churchill with children Randolph and Diana in 1923.
Churchill on Budget Day with his wife Clementine and children Sarah and Randolph, 15 April 1929.
Churchill meeting with film star Charlie Chaplin in Los Angeles in 1929.
Churchill and Neville Chamberlain, the chief proponent of appeasement.
Churchill with Lord Halifax in 1938
Churchill takes aim with a Sten sub-machine gun in June 1941. The man in the pin-striped suit and fedora to the right is his bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson.
Churchill walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral with J A Moseley, M H Haigh, A R Grindlay and others, 1941.
Churchill and Roosevelt seated on the quarterdeck of for a Sunday service during the Atlantic Conference, 10 August 1941
Huge portraits of Churchill and Stalin, Brisbane, Australia, 31 October 1941
Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill at the Tehran Conference in 1943.
Churchill in the Roman amphitheatre of ancient Carthage to address 3,000 British and American troops, June 1943
Churchill is greeted by a crowd in Québec City, Canada, 1943
Churchill's crossing of the Rhine river in Germany, during Operation Plunder on 25 March 1945.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference, February 1945.
The destruction of Dresden, February 1945.
Churchill waving the Victory sign to the crowd in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. Ernest Bevin stands to his right.
Churchill at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
Churchill in 1949.
Churchill with Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles and Princess Anne, 10 February 1953.
Churchill with Anthony Eden, Dean Acheson and Harry Truman, 5 January 1952.
Churchill's grave at St Martin's Church, Bladon.
Allies (1995) by Lawrence Holofcener, a sculptural group depicting Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill in New Bond Street, London.
The statue of Churchill (1973) by Ivor Roberts-Jones in Parliament Square, London
The British Empire at its territorial peak in 1921.

In November, Churchill and Roosevelt met Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek at the Cairo Conference (codename Sextant).

Huang Jinrong

Green Gang

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Chinese secret society and criminal organization, which was prominent in criminal, social and political activity in Shanghai during the early to mid 20th century.

Chinese secret society and criminal organization, which was prominent in criminal, social and political activity in Shanghai during the early to mid 20th century.

Huang Jinrong
Du Yuesheng

The Green Gang was often hired by Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang to break up union meetings and labor strikes and was also involved in the Chinese Civil War.

Huanggutun Railway Station shortly after the explosion.

Huanggutun incident

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The assassination of the Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin near Shenyang on 4 June 1928.

The assassination of the Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin near Shenyang on 4 June 1928.

Huanggutun Railway Station shortly after the explosion.
Huanggutun Railway Station shortly after the explosion.
Assassination of Zhang Zuolin, 4 June 1928
Wreck of Zhang Zuolin's saloon coach

The situation was further complicated by the success of the Northern Expedition, led by Chiang Kai-shek of the National Revolutionary Army, in which the Kuomintang successively defeated Sun Chuanfang, Wu Peifu and other warlords of the Northern Faction and the Beijing government, controlled by Zhang Zuolin.

Vasily Blyukher

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Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.

Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.

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This Soviet propaganda map from 1930 depicts a portrait of Blyukher on the lower left corner.

From 1924 to 1927 Blyukher was a Soviet military adviser in China, where he used the name Galen (after the name of his wife, Galina) while attached to Chiang Kai-shek's military headquarters.

Communist International

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Soviet-controlled international organization founded in 1919 that advocated world communism.

Soviet-controlled international organization founded in 1919 that advocated world communism.

The Communist International published a namesake theoretical magazine in a variety of European languages from 1919 to 1943.
The Bolshevik by Boris Kustodiev, 1920
Second Congress of the Communist International
Painting by Boris Kustodiev representing the festival of the Comintern II Congress on the Uritsky Square (former Palace square) in Petrograd
The Comintern membership card of Karl Kilbom
Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai's Delegates' Card at the 1935 Comintern's 7th Congress as she was a delegate representing the Indochinese Communist Party

After the definite break with Chiang Kai-shek in 1927, Joseph Stalin sent personal emissaries to help organize revolts which at this time failed.

Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

In July 1945, the Allies had decided to divide Indochina at the 16th parallel to allow Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China to receive the Japanese surrender in the north while Britain's Lord Louis Mountbatten received their surrender in the south.

A French political cartoon in 1898, China – the cake of Kings and Emperors, showing Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan dividing China.

Unequal treaty

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Name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed during the 19th and early 20th centuries, between China and various European powers, such as the British Empire, France, the German Empire, and the Russian Empire, as well as Japan and the United States.

Name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed during the 19th and early 20th centuries, between China and various European powers, such as the British Empire, France, the German Empire, and the Russian Empire, as well as Japan and the United States.

A French political cartoon in 1898, China – the cake of Kings and Emperors, showing Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan dividing China.
The Eight-Nation Alliance inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City, during a celebration ceremony after the signing of the Boxer Protocol, 1901.

After Chiang Kai-shek declared a new national government in 1927, the Western powers quickly offered diplomatic recognition, arousing anxiety in Japan.

The concept first appearing in the newspaper Min Bao in 1905 appearing as "Three Major Principles" (三大主義) instead of "Three Principles of the People" (三民主義).

Three Principles of the People

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Political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China made during the Republican Era.

Political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to improve China made during the Republican Era.

The concept first appearing in the newspaper Min Bao in 1905 appearing as "Three Major Principles" (三大主義) instead of "Three Principles of the People" (三民主義).
"Portrait of Sun Yat-sen" (1921) Li Tiefu Oil on Canvas 93×71.7cm
A sign on Dadan Island near Quemoy (Kinmen) facing Mainland China proclaiming "Three Principles of the People Unites China" set by General Zhao in Aug. 1986, dismissed after 1987 Lieyu Massacre

Chiang Kai-shek further elaborated the Mínshēng principle of both the importance of social well-being and recreational activities for a modernized China in 1953 in Taiwan.