A report on Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

- Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang in 1943

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Beiyang government

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The Beiyang government, officially the Republic of China , sometimes spelled Peiyang Government and also known as the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking (Beijing) between 1912 and 1928.

The Beiyang government, officially the Republic of China , sometimes spelled Peiyang Government and also known as the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking (Beijing) between 1912 and 1928.

Republic of China between 1912 and 1928.
The first Congress of the Republic of China in 1915
Republic of China between 1912 and 1928.
Yuan Shikai's inauguration as the provisional president.
The Yuan Shikai "dollar" (yuan in Chinese), issued for the first time in 1914, became a dominant coin type of the Republic of China.
Duan Qirui, Chief Executive of the Republic of China
Protests during the May Fourth Movement
President Cao Kun.
The Beijing bell and drum towers ceased being official timepieces after the coup.
The flag of the Kuomintang and the new national flag crested on a building in Harbin, Manchuria.
From 1911 to 1916.
From 1916 to 1920.
From 1921 to 1922.
From 1923 to 1924.
From 1925 to 1926.
From 1927 to 1928.

His successor Chiang Kai-shek defeated the Beiyang warlords during the Northern Expedition between 1926 and 1928, and overthrew the factions and the government, effectively unifying the country in 1928.

Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (known as the Republic of China Army after the 1947 Constitution)

National Revolutionary Army

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The military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in China.

The military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in China.

Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (known as the Republic of China Army after the 1947 Constitution)
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of China.
NRA troops against Sun Chuanfang's private army preparing to defend Shanghai.
National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition.
The NRA during World War II
A Chinese propaganda poster depicting the National Revolutionary Army.
Elite German-trained divisions of National Revolutionary Army before the Battle of Wuhan
A platoon of the National Revolutionary Army marching in British helmets during a parade in Burma in 1943.
A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division from the X Force, boarding planes in Burma bound for China, May 1944.
Chinese suicide bomber putting on an explosive vest made out of Model 24 hand grenades to use in an attack on Japanese tanks at the Battle of Taierzhuang.
A Chinese Nationalist Army soldier equipped with a German M35 helmet and a ZB vz. 26.
German-equipped Chinese troops practicing a march at the Chinese Military Academy at Chengtu in 1944.
US-equipped Chinese Army in India marching.

A large number of the Army's officers passed through the Whampoa Military Academy, and the first commandant, Chiang Kai-shek, became commander-in-chief of the Army in 1925 before launching the successful Northern Expedition.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

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Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell.

Nanjing

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Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the second largest city in the East China region.

Purple Mountain or Zijin Shan, located to the east of the walled city of Nanjing, is the origin of the nickname "Jinling". The water in the front is Xuanwu Lake
A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb (AD518). Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties is widely considered as the city's icon.
The Śarīra pagoda in Qixia Temple. It was built in AD601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.
Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty
The Ming Palace, also known as the "Forbidden City of Nanjing", was the imperial palace of the early Ming dynasty, when Nanjing was the capital of China.
Nanjing City Wall near Xuanwumen Gate
Mochou Lake
The Presidential Palace of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927
Japanese soldiers entering the walled city of Nanjing through the Gate of China
Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Map including Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING) (Walled)) (AMS, 1955)
Map of Nanjing (labeled as 南京 NAN-CHING (NANKING))
Nanjing Region – Lower Yangtze Basin and Eastern China.
Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple.
7 December 2013 image from NASA's Terra Satellite of the Eastern China smog
People's Government of Nanjing City
Qinhuai River in 1920s
Old city of Nanjing 'Old Gate East'
Xinjiekou, Nanjing
Naning city centre in May 1987
Nanjing Zifeng Tower and the Purple Mountain in the background
Nanjing South Railway Station
Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge
Nanjing Metro Construction Plan by 2022
Nanjing Lukou International Airport, NKG
Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge
Jiangnan Examination Hall
Kunqu
Nanjing Library
Nanjing Museum
Qinhuai River
Central Stadium
Nanjing Olympic Sports Center
City Wall of Nanjing and Yijiangmen Gate
East Gate of China
Qinhuai River
Jiming Temple
Jinghai Temple and Yuejiang Tower
Xuanwu Lake
The Porcelain Pagoda of Nanjing
Classical buildings in the Mochou Lake
Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Tower of Linggu Temple
Qixia Temple
Former Presidential Palace
Former National Assembly Building
Yihe Road
Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings
Former Capital Hotel
Former Academia Sinica Buildings
Gate of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery
Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain
National Purple Mountain Observatory
Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs
Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders
Jinling Hotel
Nanjing Youth Olympic Towers
Nanjing University, Gulou campus
Nanjing University, Xianlin campus
Southeast University, Sipailou campus
Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus

Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317 to 589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War.

Zhejiang

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Eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Portrait of Qian Liu, the King of Wuyue.
This tripod planter from the Ming dynasty was found in Zhejiang province. It is housed in the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.
A restored Qing era (1891) bridge on a coastal road
Zhejiang in 1936
View of the West Lake in Hangzhou.
West Lake at night
Zhejiang products treemap, 2020
harvesting tea leaves, Zhejiang province, May 1987
Yuao, a fishing village on Dayu Bay in South Zhejiang (Cangnan County)
She ethnic county, townships and towns in Zhejiang
A boat on one of Shaoxing's waterways, near the city center. North Zhejiang, known as the "Land of Fish and Rice," is characterized by its canals and waterways.
Fish being dried dockside in Pacao Harbor, Cangnan County
The Hall of Five Hundred Arhats at Guoqing Temple
Temple of All-Heaven (都天廟Dōutiānmiào) in Longgang, Cangnan, Wenzhou.
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Hangzhou, by night, in Wushan, Xihu.
Temple of Bao Gong in Ouhai, Wenzhou.
Buddha altar in the Puji Temple of Mount Putuo.
Jusheng Temple in Wuma, Lucheng, Wenzhou.
Temple of the King of Heaven of the Little Putuo Buddhist Monastery in Yinzhou, Ningbo.
Temple of Yue Fei in Hangzhou.
Church in Aojiang, Pingyang, Wenzhou.
Catholic Cathedral of Hangzhou, Hangzhou

It has been called 'the backbone of China' due to being a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable persons, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma.

Taiwan

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Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years.

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years.

A young Tsou man
Fort Zeelandia, the Governor's residence in Dutch Formosa
Hunting deer, painted in 1746
Japanese colonial soldiers march Taiwanese captured after the Tapani Incident in 1915 from the Tainan jail to court.
General Chen Yi (right) accepting the receipt of General Order No. 1 from Rikichi Andō (left), the last Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan, in Taipei City Hall
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang from 1925 until his death in 1975
With Chiang Kai-shek, US president Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.
In 1988, Lee Teng-hui became the first president of the Republic of China born in Taiwan and was the first to be directly elected in 1996.
Student protest in Taipei against a controversial trade agreement with China in March 2014
A satellite image of Taiwan, showing it is mostly mountainous in the east, with gently sloping plains in the west. The Penghu Islands are west of the main island.
Köppen climate classification of Taiwan
Dabajian Mountain
2015 Ma–Xi meeting
ROC embassy in Eswatini
The flag used by Taiwan at the Olympic Games, where it competes as "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北)
Taiwan's popularly elected president resides in the Presidential Office Building, Taipei, originally built in the Japanese era for colonial governors
Tsai Ing-wen, President of the Republic of China
Su Tseng-chang, Premier of the Republic of China
Taiwanese-born Tangwai ("independent") politician Wu San-lien (second left) celebrates with supporters his landslide victory of 65.5 per cent in Taipei's first mayoral election in January 1951.
Results from an identity survey conducted each year from 1992 to 2020 by the Election Study Center, National Chengchi University. Responses are Taiwanese (green), Chinese (red) or Both Taiwanese and Chinese (hatched). No response is shown as grey.
Republic of China Army’s Thunderbolt-2000, a multiple rocket launcher
The C-130H in Songshan AFB
Taipei 101 held the world record for the highest skyscraper from 2004 to 2010.
Neihu Technology Park in Taipei
Rice paddy fields in Yilan County
China Airlines aircraft line-up at Taoyuan International Airport
Children at a Taiwanese school
Population density map of Taiwan (residents per square kilometre)
Original geographic distributions of Taiwanese indigenous peoples
Most commonly used home language in each area, darker in proportion to the lead over the next most common
National Taiwan University Hospital
Apo Hsu and the NTNU Symphony Orchestra onstage in the National Concert Hall
Taiwanese writer, literary critic and politician Wang Tuoh
Yani Tseng with the 2011 Women's British Open trophy
Tai Tzu-ying, the current world No.1 in BWF at the 2018 Chinese Taipei Open
St. John's Catholic Church in Banqiao District, New Taipei
Countries maintaining relations with the ROCdiplomatic relations and embassy in Taipei
unofficial relations (see text)
The Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) is the top-tier professional baseball league in Taiwan

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang), led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), led by CCP Chairman Mao Zedong.

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Nanjing decade

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Informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.

Informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.

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The Bund in Shanghai in the 1930s
Zones of control during the "Nanjing Decade"

It began when Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek took Nanjing from Zhili clique warlord Sun Chuanfang halfway through the Northern Expedition in 1927.

The Beiyang Army in training

Warlord Era

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Period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

Period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928.

The Beiyang Army in training
Zhang Zuolin (left) and Wu Peifu (right), two of the most powerful strongmen of the Warlord Era
Control of railroads was of great importance to the warlords.
Zhang Zongchang, one of the most infamous Chinese warlords
Bandits in northwestern China, around 1915
Warlord soldiers train with dao swords sometime in the 1920s. Some warlord armies, especially those in southern China, were badly armed, paid and supplied, and often lacked even basic necessities, such as guns, ammunition, and food.
Zhang Zuolin with two of his sons, both wearing expensive miniature uniforms
Renault FT of the Fengtian clique during Northern Expedition
This military symbol was based on the Five Races Under One Union flag.
The party emblem of the Kuomintang
Map of the campaigns of the Northern expedition of the Kuomintang
In course of the Central Plains War, several warlords attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's newly formed Nationalist government; despite the defeat of the anti-Kuomintang forces, warlords continued to remain in power in much of China until the 1940s

The Warlord Era ended in 1928 when the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek officially unified China through the Northern Expedition, marking the beginning of the Nanjing decade.

The three principals involved in the Xi'an Incident: Chang Hsüeh-liang, Yang Hucheng, and Chiang Kai-shek

Xi'an Incident

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Incident, also spelled as Sian Incident was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, Shaanxi in 1936.

Incident, also spelled as Sian Incident was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, Shaanxi in 1936.

The three principals involved in the Xi'an Incident: Chang Hsüeh-liang, Yang Hucheng, and Chiang Kai-shek
Map showing the situation of China during the Xi'an Incident in December 1936
Chang Hsüeh-liang and Yang Hucheng in 1936

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Nationalist government of China, was detained by his subordinates Generals Chang Hsüeh-liang (Zhang Xueliang) and Yang Hucheng, in order to force the ruling Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang or KMT) to change its policies regarding the Empire of Japan and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).

Portrait of Chiang Ching-Kuo, May 1985.

Chiang Ching-kuo

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Politician of the Republic of China after its retreat to Taiwan.

Politician of the Republic of China after its retreat to Taiwan.

Portrait of Chiang Ching-Kuo, May 1985.
Chiang Ching-kuo with his father Chiang Kai-shek (1930s)
Chiang Ching-kuo in his youth
Chiang Ching-kuo in 1948
Chiang Ching-kuo (left) with father Chiang Kai-shek in 1948.
Chiang Ching-kuo lies in state.
Statue of Chiang Ching-kuo in Dongyin Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands)
Ching-kuo Memorial Hall in Nangan Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands)
Family of Chiang Ching-kuo. From left to right: Front – Alex, Faina, Chiang Ching-kuo, Eddie; Rear – Alan, Chiang Hsiao-chang.

The eldest and only biological son of former president Chiang Kai-shek, he held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China.