A report on Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

- Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang in 1943

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Republic of China Military Academy

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Service academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.

Service academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, commander-in-chief of the NRA, emerged from the Northern Expedition as the leader of the KMT and China.
Sun Yat-sen [middle behind the table] and Chiang Kai-shek [on stage in uniform] at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924.
Flag of the ROCMA
Flag of the National Revolutionary Army (now as the Republic of China Army
Zhou Enlai as Director of the political department, Whampoa Military Academy.
Alumni record of the first group students of Republic of China Military Academy.
Whampoa Military Academy students training
Modern picture of the former Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou

Sun's favorite and rising star Chiang Kai-shek was appointed the first commandant of the academy.

Feng Yuxiang

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Warlord and a leader of the Republic of China from Chaohu, Anhui.

Warlord and a leader of the Republic of China from Chaohu, Anhui.

Feng Yuxiang and his family
Feng Yuxiang was in front of the iron armored vehicle captured by the Fengtian clique
Feng Yuxiang, Chiang Kai-sek and Yan Xishan, 1928, erstwhile allies prior to the outbreak of the Central Plains War
Feng Yuxiang on the cover of Time, 2 July 1928
Feng Yuxiang on the cover of The Young Companion, December 1937.
Tomb of Feng Yuxiang at the foot of Mount Tai in Shandong.

He joined the Nationalist Party (KMT), supported the Northern Expedition and became blood brothers with Chiang Kai-shek, but resisted Chiang's consolidation of power in the Central Plains War and broke with him again in resisting Japanese incursions in 1933.

President of the Republic of China

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Head of state of the Republic of China and the commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces.

Head of state of the Republic of China and the commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces.

The Presidential Building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei houses the office of the ROC President currently.
The Presidential Southern Office in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung opened on 10 March 2017.
The Presidential Central Office in Fengyuan District, Taichung opened on 18 March 2017.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Army General Li Tsung-jen were elected by the National Assembly to be the first-term president and vice president on 20 May 1948.
At the funeral of Pope John Paul II, President Chen Shui-bian (far left), whom the Holy See recognized as the head of state of China, was seated in the front row (in French alphabetical order) beside the first lady and president of Brazil.
Air Force 3701, the presidential aircraft of the Republic of China.
Official results of the election announcing Sun's election on November 10, 1911.
The West Garden Hall in Presidential Palace, Nanjing was the office of the Provisional President in 1912.
After Yuan Shikai's Peiyang Government took control of the ROC, the house in Peking was the office of the president.
Presidential Palace in Xuanwu District, Nanjing housed the office of the Chairman of the National Government of the ROC in 1927–1937.
The Presidential Building in Presidential Palace, Nanjing was the office of the President of ROC after the 1947 Chinese Constitution, until the Government of the ROC fled to Taiwan in 1949.
Sun Yat-sen
1st: Chiang Kai-shek
2nd: Yen Chia-kan
4th: Lee Teng-hui
5th: Chen Shui-bian
6th: Ma Ying-jeou

1) President Chiang Kai-shek declared incapacity on 21 January 1949 amid several Communist victories in the Chinese Civil War and was replaced by Vice President Li Tsung-jen as the acting president. However, Chiang continued to wield authority as the director-general of the Kuomintang and commander-in-chief of the Republic of China Armed Forces. Li Tsung-jen lost the ensuing power struggle and fled to the United States in November 1949. Chiang evacuated with the government to Taiwan on 10 December 1949 and resumed his duties as the president on 1 March 1950.

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.

Mukden Incident

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False flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

False flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.
Japanese soldiers of 29th Regiment on the Mukden West Gate
Japanese experts inspect the "sabotaged" South Manchurian Railway.
A section of the Liǔtiáo Railway. The caption reads "railway fragment".
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations after the Mukden Incident in 1932.
The September 18th History Museum in Shenyang

Chang Hsueh-liang, Chang Tso-lin's son and successor, joined the Nanjing Government led by Chiang Kai-shek from anti-Japanese sentiment.

Taoyuan International Airport

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International airport serving Taipei and northern Taiwan.

International airport serving Taipei and northern Taiwan.

Morning rush hour at TPE
Terminal 1 birds-eye view
Renovated arrival hall
Departure Hall
Arrivals Hall
The Skytrain shuttles passengers between Terminals 1 and 2
Stamp demonstrating successful enrollment
Taoyuan Airport MRT Commuter (left) and Express (right) trains.
CAL Park, the headquarters for China Airlines.
Planned future layout
Exterior of Terminal 1

The airport was originally planned under the name Taoyuan International Airport but was later changed to Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in memory of former President Chiang Kai-shek.

Allies of World War II

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International military coalition formed during the Second World War to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy.

International military coalition formed during the Second World War to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy.

The Allied leaders of the European theatre (left to right): Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meeting at the Tehran Conference in 1943
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theater: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943
Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1941 by the U.S. Office of War Information
Wartime poster for the United Nations, created in 1943 by the U.S. Office of War Information
British Supermarine Spitfire fighter aircraft (bottom) flying past a German Heinkel He 111 bomber aircraft (top) during the Battle of Britain in 1940
British Crusader tanks during the North African Campaign
British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal under attack from Italian aircraft during the Battle of Cape Spartivento (27 Nov 1940)
British soldiers of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry in Elst, Netherlands on 2 March 1945
Free French forces at the Battle of Bir Hakeim, 1942
FAFL Free French GC II/5 "LaFayette" receiving ex-USAAF Curtiss P-40 fighters at Casablanca, French Morocco
The French fleet scuttled itself rather than fall into the hands of the Axis after their invasion of Vichy France on 11 November 1942.
The fall of Damascus to the Allies, late June 1941. A car carrying Free French commanders General Georges Catroux and General Paul Louis Le Gentilhomme enters the city, escorted by French Circassian cavalry (Gardes Tcherkess).
Soviet soldiers and T-34 tanks advancing near Bryansk in 1942
Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad during the Battle of Stalingrad
Soviet Il-2 ground attack aircraft attacking German ground forces during the Battle of Kursk, 1943
American Douglas SBD Dauntless dive-bomber aircraft attacking the Japanese cruiser Mikuma during the Battle of Midway in June 1942
U.S. Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign in November 1942
American Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber aircraft during the bombing of oil refineries in Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943 during Operation Tidal Wave
U.S. soldiers departing landing craft during the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944 known as D-Day
Philippine Scouts at Fort William McKinley firing a 37 mm anti-tank gun in training
Soldiers of the National Revolutionary Army associated with Nationalist China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Soldiers of the First Workers' and Peasants' Army associated with Communist China, during the Sino-Japanese War
Victorious Chinese Communist soldiers holding the flag of the Republic of China during the Hundred Regiments Offensive
Members of the Belgian Resistance with a Canadian soldier in Bruges, September 1944 during the Battle of the Scheldt
Norwegian soldiers on the Narvik front, May 1940
Pilots of the No. 303 "Kościuszko" Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain
Polish partisan of the Home Army (AK), "Jędrusie" unit, holding a Browning wz.1928 light machine gun
Partisans and Chetniks escorting captured Germans through Užice, autumn 1941
Partisan leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito with Winston Churchill in 1944
Chetniks leader General Mihailovic with members of the U.S. military mission, Operation Halyard, 1944
Romanian soldiers in Transylvania, September–October 1944
The dead bodies of Benito Mussolini, his mistress Clara Petacci, and several Fascist leaders, hanging for public display after they were executed by Italian partisans in 1945
The first version of the flag of the United Nations, introduced in April 1945
A British poster from 1941, promoting the greater alliance against Germany
U.S. government poster showing a friendly Soviet soldier, 1942

The Soviet Union intervened against Japan and its client state in Manchuria in 1945, cooperating with the Nationalist Government of China and the Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek; though also cooperating, preferring, and encouraging the Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Zedong to take effective control of Manchuria after expelling Japanese forces.

Fenghua District

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District of the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.

District of the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.

Map including Fenghua (labeled as FENG-HUA (FENGHWA) 奉化) (1954)

Fenghua is most famous for being the hometown of former Presidents Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Ching-kuo.

Shandong

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Coastal province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region.

Coastal province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region.

A Song-era monument to a legendary native of Shandong, the Yellow Emperor, at his supposed birthplace
Remains of Ancient Linzi city sewer passing underneath the former city wall
City of Linqing, Shandong, with a view of the Grand Canal. Drawing by William Alexander, draughtsman of the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793.
Street market in the city, photographed by members of the Fragata Sarmiento's crew in the late 19th century
German 1912 map of the Shandong Peninsula showing the Kiautschou Bay concession
The sacred Mount Tai
Tomb of the 59th generation senior descendant of Confucius, Kong Yanjin. Many generations of the senior-branch direct descendants of Confucius ruled the Qufu area as its feudal rulers.
Shandong coastal vineyards
Map of Shandong Dialects
Jinan Olympic Sports Center Stadium.
Altar of the Temple of Guandi in Jinan
Hall of the Great Perfection of the Temple of Confucius in Qufu
Temple of Mazu in Qingdao

He was succeeded by Han Fuju, who was loyal to the warlord Feng Yuxiang but later switched his allegiance to the Nanjing government headed by Chiang Kai-shek.

Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture

Wuhan

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Capital of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China.

Capital of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China.

Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture
Yellow Crane Tower
Wuhan in 1864
Foreign concessions along the Hankow Bund c. 1900.
Wuchang Uprising Memorial, the original site of revolutionary government in 1911
Present-day Wuhan area in 1915
A map of Wuhan painted by the Japanese in 1930, with Hankou being the most prosperous sector
The gunboat Zhongshan
Chiang Kai-Shek inspecting Chinese soldiers in Wuhan as Japanese forces approach the city
People's Liberation Army troops at Zhongshan Avenue, Hankou on May 16, 1949
In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in Wuhan, Mao Zedong envisions "walls of stone" to be erected upstream.
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Map including the Wuhan area (AMS, 1953)
Hongshan District
The main gate of Wuhan Municipal Party Committee
A night sight near a modern shopping mall in Hongshan District
A tram in University Science Park Station
Tianhe Airport Terminal 3
Happy Valley Wuhan amusement park
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, made in 433 BC, now on display at the Hubei Provincial Museum in Wuhan
The old library (center), dorm (below), and schools of literature and law (left and right) of Wuhan University
The Institute for Advanced Studies at Wuhan University
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Fried hongshan caitai (洪山菜薹)
Doupi on the left and Re-gan mian on the right
Second bridge
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Li Na, a former professional tennis player and two-time Grand Slam champion, serving at Wimbledon 2008, 1st round against Anastasia Rodionova
President Li Yuanhong
Baotong Buddhist Temple
Gude Buddhist Temple
Thanksgiving Protestant Church
Holy Family Catholic Church

The split was partially motivated by the purge of the Communists within the party, which marked the end of the First United Front, and Chiang Kai-shek briefly stepped down as the commander of the National Revolutionary Army.

Japanese soldiers atop a gate in the walled city of Jinan, May 1928

Jinan incident

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Japanese soldiers atop a gate in the walled city of Jinan, May 1928
Japanese troops in the commercial district, July 1927. Jinan's railway station can be seen in the background.
A map of troop movements in the lead up to the Jinan incident, April–May 1928
Former foreign office building in Jinan, site of the killing of Cai Gongshi
Jinan Tragedy Memorial Hall, Baotu Spring Park, Jinan

The Jinan incident (formerly romanised Tsinan) or 3 May Tragedy began as a 3 May 1928 dispute between Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army (NRA) and Japanese soldiers and civilians in Jinan, the capital of Shandong province in China, which then escalated into an armed conflict between the NRA and the Imperial Japanese Army.