A report on Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

- Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang in 1943

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Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.

1911 Revolution

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The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen in London
Sun Yat-sen with members of the Tongmenghui
Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members
Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising
A statue to honor revolutionary Qiu Jin
The memorial for the 72 martyrs
The Iron Blood 18-star flag, used during the Wuchang Uprising
Paths of the uprising
Map of uprisings during the 1911 Revolution
Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai
One of the old buildings occupied by the Guangfuhui in Lianjiang County, Fujian
1911 battle at Ta-ping gate, Nanking. Painting by T. Miyano.
Seal of the President of Provisional Government of Republic of China
Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right.
Sun Yat-sen in 1912 at one of the historic crossroads with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Iron Blood 18-star flag
Imperial edict for abdication

Other units, led by Chiang Kai-shek and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志), captured most of the government offices.

A Japanese soldier pictured with the corpses of Chinese civilians by Qinhuai River

Nanjing Massacre

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The mass murder of Chinese civilians in Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, immediately after the Battle of Nanjing in the Second Sino-Japanese War, by the Imperial Japanese Army.

The mass murder of Chinese civilians in Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, immediately after the Battle of Nanjing in the Second Sino-Japanese War, by the Imperial Japanese Army.

A Japanese soldier pictured with the corpses of Chinese civilians by Qinhuai River
An article on the "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) – Mukai 106–105 Noda – Both 2nd Lieutenants Go into Extra Innings".
A sword used in the "contest" is on display at the Republic of China Armed Forces Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Prince Yasuhiko Asaka in 1935.
Iwane Matsui enters Nanjing.
Photo taken in Xuzhou, showing the body of a woman who was profaned in a way similar to the teenager described in case 5 of John Magee's film
Case 5 of John Magee's film: on December 13, 1937, about 30 Japanese soldiers murdered all but two of 11 Chinese in the house at No. 5 Xinlukou. A woman and her two teenaged daughters were raped, and Japanese soldiers rammed a bottle and a cane into her vagina. An eight-year-old girl was stabbed, but she and her younger sister survived. They were found alive two weeks after the killings by the elderly woman shown in the photo. Bodies of the victims can also be seen in the photo.
A boy killed by a Japanese soldier with the butt of a rifle, reportedly because he did not take off his hat
Bodies of Chinese massacred by Japanese troops along a river in Nanjing
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer using a shin-guntō
A mass grave from the Nanjing Massacre
Harold John Timperley's telegram of 17 January 1938 describing the atrocities
Photo in the album taken in Nanjing by Itou Kaneo of the Kisarazu Air Unit of the Imperial Japanese Navy
A picture of a dead child. Probably taken by Bernhard Sindberg
Prisoners being buried alive<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133p/133p04papers/JChapelNanjing046.htm|first=Joseph|last=Chapel|title=Denial of the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanking|year=2004}}</ref>
Skeletons of the massacre's victims
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was convened at "Ichigaya Court," formally Imperial Japanese Army HQ building in Ichigaya, Tokyo.
General Iwane Matsui<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.gr.jp/~koa_kan_non/16-4.html|title=「松井石根研究会」の必要性について|work=history.gr.jp|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721122627/http://www.history.gr.jp/~koa_kan_non/16-4.html|archive-date=July 21, 2011}}</ref>
General Hisao Tani<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.people.com.cn/media/200112/12/NewsMedia_147412.jpg|access-date=March 26, 2009|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100218182317/http://www.people.com.cn/media/200112/12/NewsMedia_147412.jpg|archive-date=February 18, 2010|title=Hisao Tani}}</ref>
Yanziji Nanjing Massacre Memorial in 2004
A memorial stone at Yanziji in Nanjing, for victims in the Nanjing Massacre
John Rabe's former residence, now the "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall", in Nanjing, July 2008
A monument at the Nanking Massacre Memorial Hall that says there were 300,000 victims, in multiple languages
A statue titled "Family Ruined" in front of the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall
John Rabe's former residence, now the "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall", in Nanjing, September 2010

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew that the fall of Nanjing was a matter of time.

Zhang Fakui on the cover of The Young Companion, June 1938

Zhang Fakui

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Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.

Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.

Zhang Fakui on the cover of The Young Companion, June 1938
Zhang Fakui on the cover of The Young Companion, June 1938

When Chiang Kai-shek unleashed his forces against the communists in the Shanghai Massacre on April 12, 1927, Zhang stayed with Wang Jingwei's Wuhan government.

British Hong Kong

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Colony and dependent territory of the British Empire from 1841 to 1997, apart from a period under Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945.

Colony and dependent territory of the British Empire from 1841 to 1997, apart from a period under Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945.

Possibly the earliest painting of Hong Kong Island, showing the waterfront settlement which became Victoria City
Spring Garden Lane, 1846
Hong Kong in the 1930s
Japanese troops crossing the border from the mainland, 1941
British forces reoccupy Hong Kong under Rear-Admiral Cecil Harcourt, 30 August 1945
Government House, c. 1873
Victoria Harbour in 1988, showing the Bank of China Tower being built
Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry
The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring.
Police confrontation during the 1967 leftist riots

In 1941, during the Second World War, the British reached an agreement with the Chinese government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek that if Japan attacked Hong Kong, the Chinese National Army would attack the Japanese from the rear to relieve pressure on the British garrison.

Martial law in Taiwan

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Martial law in Taiwan refers to the periods in the history of Taiwan after World War II during control by the Republic of China Armed Forces of the Kuomintang-led Government of the Republic of China regime.

Martial law in Taiwan refers to the periods in the history of Taiwan after World War II during control by the Republic of China Armed Forces of the Kuomintang-led Government of the Republic of China regime.

The first declaration of nationwide martial law was enacted by President Chiang Kai-shek on 10 December 1948. The declaration was effective nationwide except in Sinkiang, Sikang, Tsinghai, Tibet Area and Taiwan. The territory in the north of Yangtze River was declared as the War Zone, and the south was declared as the Alert Zone. With the continuing of the civil war, Chiang resigned as president on 21 January 1949, as KMT forces suffered terrible losses and defections to the Chinese Communist Party. The Vice President Li Tsung-jen was then sworn in as the Acting President. He decided to lift the nationwide martial law in 24 January to ease the situation to conduct negotiations with the Chinese Communist Party.

Taipei

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Capital and a special municipality of Taiwan.

Capital and a special municipality of Taiwan.

Taipei's Old North Gate, completed in 1884
Map of eastern Taipei (labeled as TAIHOKU) and nearby areas (AMS, 1944)
The Taihoku Prefecture government building in the 1910s (now the Control Yuan building).
Taipei 101 is a landmark and tourist attraction in Taipei
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a national monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei
With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to a crowd during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.
The city of Taipei, as seen from Maokong in 2014.
Customers in the Shilin Night Market
Skyline of modern skyscrapers in Xinyi Special District, Taipei.
Bellavita Shopping Center and CPC Building at Xinyi Special District
Taipei Neihu Technology Park
The National Palace Museum
The 228 Memorial Museum
Kishu An Forest Literature
The National Concert Hall illuminated at night
The National Taiwan Museum
Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines
Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei, also known as "old city hall"
View of Eastern District taken from the observation deck of Taipei 101.
The busy streets of Ximending at night.
Built in 1738, Bangka Lungshan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the city.
Taipei City Government
Taipei City Council
Platform of Wende Station on the Taipei Metro system.
Taipei Railway Station front
Taipei Songshan Airport
West Site of National Taiwan University Hospital
Taipei Arena
Tianmu Baseball Stadium
TVBS-G produces programs mainly from their Nangang building in Taipei City.
Taipei panoramic view
Twatutia
the main entrance of Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall
New year fireworks at Taipei 101
Presidential Office Building from Ketagalan Boulevard
Red House Theater
Beitou Museum
Grand Hotel Taipei
Dazhi Bridge
Dadaocheng Wharf, Taipei
Bao-an Temple
Zhinan Temple
A typhoon makes landfall in Taipei City
Zhishan Garden at the National Palace Museum
Ximending at night
Taipei Story House (Yuanshan Mansion)
Daan Park
Daan Park

In 1947 the Kuomintang (KMT) government under Chiang Kai-shek declared island-wide martial law in Taiwan as a result of the 28 February Incident, which began with incidents in Taipei but led to an island-wide crackdown on the local population by forces loyal to Chiang.

Blue Sky with a White Sun flag above the oath of Guominjun

Dang Guo

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The one-party system adopted by the Republic of China under the Kuomintang.

The one-party system adopted by the Republic of China under the Kuomintang.

Blue Sky with a White Sun flag above the oath of Guominjun

From 1924 onwards, after Sun Yat-sen's decision to copy elements of the Soviet Union's political system, Chiang Kai-shek used the Kuomintang to control and operate the National Government of the Republic of China (ROC) and the National Revolutionary Army.

Beiyang government's five-coloured flag

Northeast Flag Replacement

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The Northeast Flag Replacement refers to Zhang Xueliang's announcement on 29 December 1928 that all banners of the Beiyang government in Manchuria would be replaced with the flag of the Nationalist government, thus nominally uniting China under one government.

The Northeast Flag Replacement refers to Zhang Xueliang's announcement on 29 December 1928 that all banners of the Beiyang government in Manchuria would be replaced with the flag of the Nationalist government, thus nominally uniting China under one government.

Beiyang government's five-coloured flag
Flag of the Nationalist government
Zhang Xueliang in 1928.

In April 1928, Chiang Kai-shek was reinstated as commander of the National Revolutionary Army, the position he previously resigned from after taking responsibility for splitting the KMT during the First Northern Expedition.

Max Bauer in 1918

Max Bauer

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German General Staff officer and artillery expert in the First World War.

German General Staff officer and artillery expert in the First World War.

Max Bauer in 1918
Cropped version of Pour Le Merite-The Blue Max.
The Prussian Order Pour le Mérite in war and in peace.

Later Bauer was a military and industrial adviser to the Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek.

Blue Shirts Society

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Secret ultranationalist faction that modeled Italian fascists in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).

Secret ultranationalist faction that modeled Italian fascists in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).

The Blue Shirts origins can be traced to the Whampoa Clique of 1924 - professional military officers - many of whom had sworn personal loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek, as well to the ideals of Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People.