A report on Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek in 1907
Sun Yat-sen and Chiang at the 1924 opening ceremonies for the Soviet-funded Whampoa Military Academy
Chiang in the early 1920s
Chiang (right) together with Wang Jingwei (left), 1926
Chiang and Feng Yuxiang in 1928
Chiang during a visit to an air force base in 1945
Chiang and Soong on the cover of Time magazine, 26 October 1931
Nationalist government of Nanking – nominally ruling over entire China in 1930s
After the breakout of the Second Sino-Japanese War, The Young Companion featured Chiang on its cover.
Chiang with Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in Cairo, Egypt, November 1943
Chiang and his wife Soong Mei-ling sharing a laugh with U.S. Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell, Burma, April 1942
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong in 1945
Chiang with South Korean President Syngman Rhee in 1949
Map of the Chinese Civil War (1946–1950)
Chiang with Japanese politician Nobusuke Kishi, in 1957
Chiang presiding over the 1966 Double Ten celebrations
Chiang with U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in June 1960
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous monument, landmark, and tourist attraction in Taipei, Taiwan.
Chiang's portrait in Tiananmen Rostrum
Chinese propaganda poster proclaiming "Long Live the President"
A Chinese stamp with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek and Winston Churchill heads, with Nationalist China flag and Union Jack
Statue of Chiang Kai-shek in Yangmingshan National Park, Taiwan
Duke of Zhou
Chiang Kai-shek with the Muslim General Ma Fushou
Chiang Kai-shek as Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939), who died in the Second Sino-Japanese War during a bombardment, is the mother of his son and successor Chiang Ching-kuo
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 1889–1972), who came to Taiwan and died in Taipei
Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971), who lived in Shanghai, but moved to Hong Kong later and died there
Soong Mei-ling (宋美齡, 1898–2003), who moved to the United States after Chiang Kai-shek's death, is arguably his most famous wife even though they had no children together

Chinese Nationalist politician, revolutionary and military leader, who served as the leader of the Republic of China from 1928 to until his death in 1975.

- Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang in 1943

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Overall

Page one of the original copy of the Constitution

Constitution of the Republic of China

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Fifth and current constitution of the Republic of China , ratified by the Kuomintang during the Constituent National Assembly of the Republic of China session on 25 December 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on 25 December 1947.

Fifth and current constitution of the Republic of China , ratified by the Kuomintang during the Constituent National Assembly of the Republic of China session on 25 December 1946, in Nanjing, and adopted on 25 December 1947.

Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
Seventeen National Assembly delegates elected to represent Taiwan Province in a photo with then President Chiang Kai-shek in 1946

The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek established control over much of China by 1928.

Model of SS Zhongshan

Chinese gunboat Zhongshan

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Chinese gunboat built in Japan in 1913.

Chinese gunboat built in Japan in 1913.

Model of SS Zhongshan
Salvaging of SS Zhongshan. (A model in the Zhongshan Warship Museum)
Zhongshan Warship Museum {{nowrap|(:zh:中山舰博物馆)}} in Wuhan
The restored Zhongshan inside the museum
Zhongshan seen from the stern
Damage the ship sustained during her sinking

From there, he transferred to the SS Yongfeng, where he was joined by Chiang Kai-shek around the 27th or 29th.

Lt. Gen. Ma Hongkui as pictured in The Most Recent Biographies of Chinese Dignitaries

Ma Hongkui

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Ma Hongkui (,

Ma Hongkui (,

Lt. Gen. Ma Hongkui as pictured in The Most Recent Biographies of Chinese Dignitaries
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of China, in the middle, meets with Muslim Generals Ma Hongbin (second from left) and Ma Hongkui (second from right) at Ningxia, August 1942.
1939, Northwest China, Chinese Muslim fighters gather to fight against the Japanese
Gen. Ma Hongkui in uniform.

However, he betrayed Feng and allied with Chiang Kai-shek.

Chinese Soviet Republic

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East Asian proto-state within the territory of China's Jiangxi (Kiangsi) province and the predecessor to the People's Republic of China.

East Asian proto-state within the territory of China's Jiangxi (Kiangsi) province and the predecessor to the People's Republic of China.

Map of the various Soviets comprising the Chinese Soviet Republic and the route of the Long March
A one yuan banknote with Lenin's image in the centre
Map of the various Soviets comprising the Chinese Soviet Republic and the route of the Long March

At the time, only Chiang Kai-shek's army could match the communist forces.

The archaeological site of Jinsha is a major discovery in Chengdu in 2001.

Chengdu

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Sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan.

Sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan.

The archaeological site of Jinsha is a major discovery in Chengdu in 2001.
The Dujiangyan Irrigation System built in 256 BC still functions today.
Huangchengba in 1911
An all-airwar was fought over Chengdu between the Chinese Air Force and the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy air forces; an I-16 fighter shown here at the Datangshan Aviation Museum
40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281 "20th Century Unlimited" at Hsinching Airfield (A-1), China, advanced China Base of the 40th Bomb Group after completion of a raid on Anshan, Manchuria. Mission No. 4, 29 July 1944
People's Liberation Army troops entered Chengdu on 27 December 1949
Map including Chengdu (labeled as CH'ENG-TU (walled) 成都) (AMS, 1958)
Map including Chengdu (labeled as CH'ENG-TU)
Jinli historical district of Chengdu
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chengdu
Sichuan Opera
Teahouse in Chengdu
Mahjong
Pandas at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding
Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries
Wuhou Shrine
Jinsha gold mask
The Golden Sun Bird
Sanxingdui bronze head
Wenshu Monastery
Qingyang Taoist Temple
Starbucks at the Kuanzhai Alleys
Jinli Street at night
Jinli Street
Huanglongxi Historic Town
Dr. Sun Yat-sen Square at Chunxi Road
Map of Chengdu showing infrastructures and land use, made by the CIA in 1989. Note that city mostly ends at what is today's second ring road.
Chunxi Road
Taikoo Li and IFS at the city centre
Terminal 2, Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
Chengdu Tianfu International Airport
Chengdu Metro Network
Botanical Garden Station
Chengdu BRT
Sichuan University
Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
Chengdu Fenghuangshan Sports Park professional football stadium
Chengdu Dong'an Lake Sports Park Stadium
Hongzhaobi, South Renmin Road, Chengdu
South Renmin Road, Chengdu
IFS, Hongxing Road, Chengdu
Hotel Waldorf Astoria in Chengdu
Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, Chengdu
Jin River, Shangri-la Hotel Chengdu
City Centre of Jinjiang District
Sino-Ocean Taikoo Li, Chengdu
Sino-Ocean Taikoo-Li, Chengdu
Financial City, Chengdu
Yanlord Landmark, Hongzhaobi Crossroads, Chengdu
Anshun Bridge and Jinjiang River
Daci Temple Taikoo Li
Chengdu Global Center
Arabica at Kuanzhai Alleys
The Dujiangyan Irrigation System built in 256 BC still functions today.
Xiling Snow Mountain

During World War II, the capital city of China was forced to move inland from Nanjing to Wuhan in 1937 and from Wuhan to Chengdu, then from Chengdu to Chongqing in 1938, as the Kuomintang (KMT) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ultimately retreated to Sichuan to escape from the invading Japanese forces.

An ROC military policeman guards the Cihu entrance paifang.

Cihu Mausoleum

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An ROC military policeman guards the Cihu entrance paifang.
The entrance to the former Chiang residence is flanked by guards from the ROC Army.
President Chiang Kai-shek's remains lie in a black marble sarcophagus in his former residence.
The Cihu lake remains well preserved.

Cihu Mausoleum, officially known as the Mausoleum of Late President Chiang or President Chiang Kai-shek Mausoleum, is the temporary resting place of President Chiang Kai-shek.

Yellow River

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Second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5464 km. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province.

Second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5464 km. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province.

The Yellow River Breaches its Course by Ma Yuan (1160–1225, Song dynasty)
The Yellow River as depicted in a Qing dynasty illustrated map (sections)
Historical courses of the Yellow River
Historical courses of the Yellow River
Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood.
Zoigê County, Sichuan.
Guide County, Qinghai in the Tibetan Plateau, upstream from the Loess Plateau.
Near Xunhua, Qinghai.
Liujiaxia, Gansu.
At Lanzhou, Gansu
At Shapotou, Ningxia
Qiankun bend in Yonghe County
At Luoyang, Henan
The mouth of the Daxia River (coming from bottom right), flowing into the Yellow River's Liujiaxia Reservoir in Linxia Prefecture, Gansu
Expansion of the Yellow River Delta from 1989 to 2009 in five-year intervals.
Yellow River Delta
Liujiaxia Dam, Gansu
Sanmenxia Dam, Henan
Major cities along the Yellow River
Pontoon bridge (Luokou Pontoon Bridge ) over the Yellow River in Jinan, Shandong
The paradise fish is well known in the aquarium hobby and it originates from East Asian river basins, including the Yellow River
The Chinese pond turtle (shown) and Chinese softshell turtle are both native to the Yellow River, but also farmed in large numbers
Qikou town along Yellow River in Shanxi Province

On 9 June 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Nationalist troops under Chiang Kai-shek broke the levees holding back the river near the village of Huayuankou in Henan, causing what has been called by Canadian historian, Diana Lary, a "war-induced natural disaster".

Chiang Kai-shek

Generalissimo

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Military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the states where they are used.

Military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the states where they are used.

Chiang Kai-shek
Emilio Aguinaldo
Charles XIV John as Crown Prince. Between 1812-1814 Charles John was offered the role of Generalissimo by Sweden, Russia, Imperial France and Bourbon France.
Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg
Albrecht von Wallenstein (1625), the first generalissimo
Alexander Suvorov

Other usage of the rank has been for the commander of the united armies of several allied powers and if a senior military officer becomes the head of state or head of government of a nation like Chiang Kai-Shek in China and later in Taiwan, and Francisco Franco in Spain.

The Beiyang Army in training

Sino-German cooperation (1926–1941)

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Instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China between 1926 and 1941.

Instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China between 1926 and 1941.

The Beiyang Army in training
Sturmabteilung and Hitlerjugend in China, invited by the Kuomintang government
Hitlerjugend in China, invited by the Kuomintang government
Chinese ambassador in Berlin in 1938
H. H. Kung and Adolf Hitler in Berlin
NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs diplomatic reception in 1939, Chinese ambassador (left), Konstantin Hierl (on the right), Alfred Rosenberg and Hans Frank.
Chinese Minister Chiang Tso-pin and entourage visiting a German factory, 1928
This Heinkel He 111 A, one of 11 bought by the Aviation Ministry, later found its way to the China National Aviation Corporation.
Ju 52/3m Eurasia airliner in China
Stahlhelm-wearing Chinese soldiers firing a Pak 36 anti-tank gun.
Wang Jingwei of the Japanese-puppet government in Nanking meeting with Nazi diplomats in 1941
Chiang Wei-kuo, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's adopted son, received military training in Germany.

Moreover, Chiang Kai-shek saw German unification as something that China could learn and emulate.

Shanghai International Settlement

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The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the merger in the year 1863 of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, in which British subjects and American citizens would enjoy extraterritoriality and consular jurisdiction under the terms of treaties agreed by both parties.

The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the merger in the year 1863 of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, in which British subjects and American citizens would enjoy extraterritoriality and consular jurisdiction under the terms of treaties agreed by both parties.

Location of Shanghai International Settlement (in red) relative to the French Concession (faded yellow) and the Chinese zone (gray)
Nanking Road, Shanghai, within the International Settlement.
Location of Shanghai International Settlement (in red) relative to the French Concession (faded yellow) and the Chinese zone (gray)
1935 map of Shanghai showing the International Settlement with its boundary marked "settlement boundary", as well as the French Concession with an unlabelled boundary also marked.
1884 map of Shanghai with foreign concessions: the British Concession in blue, the French Concession to the south in faded red and American Concession to the north in faded orange; Chinese part of the city to the south of the French Concession in faded yellow.
Flag since the outbreak of World War I.
Shanghai tram, 1920s.
Boundary Stone of the Shanghai International Settlement.
The Bund, 1928.
A caricature of Stirling Fessenden, one of the longest serving chairmen of the SMC, as the "Lord Mayor of Shanghai"
Hongkew Japantown
Japanese soldiers in Shanghai, 1937.
Currency issued inside the settlement for use by the British Armed Forces inside the city (c. 1940)
The building of the British Supreme Court for China in Shanghai
"The Gardens (Huangpu Park) are reserved for the Foreign Community".
Shanghai local post stamp showing the seal of the Municipal Council
Simplified map of Shanghai Settlement (west on top)

In February 1943, the International Settlement was de jure returned to the Chinese as part of the British–Chinese Treaty for the Relinquishment of Extra-Territorial Rights in China and American–Chinese Treaty for Relinquishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China with the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek.