A report on Chief Justice of the United States

Chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and the highest-ranking officer of the U.S. federal judiciary.

- Chief Justice of the United States

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Supreme Court of the United States

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Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

Highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States.

The Court lacked its own building until 1935; from 1791 to 1801, it met in Philadelphia's City Hall.
The Royal Exchange, New York City, the first meeting place of the Supreme Court
Chief Justice Marshall (1801–1835)
The U.S. Supreme Court Building, current home of the Supreme Court, which opened in 1935.
The Hughes Court in 1937, photographed by Erich Salomon. Members include Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes (center), Louis Brandeis, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, and the "Four Horsemen" Pierce Butler, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who opposed New Deal policies.
Justices of the Supreme Court with President George W. Bush (center-right) in October 2005. The justices (left to right) are: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, John Paul Stevens, John Roberts, Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Stephen Breyer
John Roberts giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 2005 hearings on his nomination to be chief justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg giving testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee during the 1993 hearings on her nomination to be an associate justice
The interior of the United States Supreme Court
The first four female justices: O'Connor, Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Kagan.
The current Roberts Court justices (since October 2020): Front row (left to right): Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, Chief Justice John Roberts, Stephen Breyer, and Sonia Sotomayor. Back row (left to right): Brett Kavanaugh, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch, and Amy Coney Barrett.
Percentage of cases decided unanimously and by a one-vote margin from 1971 to 2016
The present U.S. Supreme Court building as viewed from the front
From the 1860s until the 1930s, the court sat in the Old Senate Chamber of the U.S. Capitol.
Seth P. Waxman at oral argument presents his case and answers questions from the justices.
Inscription on the wall of the Supreme Court Building from Marbury v. Madison, in which Chief Justice John Marshall outlined the concept of judicial review

As later set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, the court consists of the chief justice of the United States and eight associate justices.

The 1999 impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding

Impeachment in the United States

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Process by which the legislature's lower house brings charges against a civil federal officer, the vice president, or the president for misconduct alleged to have been committed.

Process by which the legislature's lower house brings charges against a civil federal officer, the vice president, or the president for misconduct alleged to have been committed.

The 1999 impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton, Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding
The 2020 first impeachment trial of Donald Trump, Chief Justice John Roberts presiding
First day of the Judiciary Committee's formal impeachment hearings against President Nixon, May 9, 1974
Depiction of the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson in 1868, Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presiding.

Third, the Senate tries the accused. In the case of the impeachment of a president, the chief justice of the United States presides over the proceedings. For the impeachment of any other official, the Constitution is silent on who shall preside, suggesting that this role falls to the Senate's usual presiding officer, the president of the Senate, who is also the vice president of the United States. Conviction in the Senate requires the concurrence of a two-thirds supermajority of those present. The result of conviction is removal from office and (optionally, in a separate vote) disqualification from holding any federal office in the future, which requires a concurrence of only a majority of senators present.

President of the United States

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Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

Head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

George Washington, the first president of the United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers a radio address, 1933
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King Jr. and others look on
President Donald Trump delivers his 2018 State of the Union Address, with Vice President Mike Pence and Speaker of the House Paul Ryan
President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Gorbachev sign the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord in the White House.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
President Barack Obama with his Supreme Court appointee Justice Sotomayor, 2009
President Ronald Reagan reviews honor guards during a state visit to China, 1984
President Woodrow Wilson throws out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1916
President Jimmy Carter (left) debates Republican nominee Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1980.
Map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated following the 2010 census to each state and the District of Columbia for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections; it also notes that Maine and Nebraska distribute electors by way of the congressional district method. 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 votes possible.
Franklin D. Roosevelt won a record four presidential elections (1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944), leading to the adoption of a two-term limit.
President William McKinley and his successor, Theodore Roosevelt
President Reagan surrounded by Secret Service
From left: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009; Obama formally took office thirteen days later.
Presidents Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum in Dallas, 2013
White House, the official residence
Camp David, the official retreat
Blair House, the official guest house
The presidential limousine, dubbed "The Beast"
The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is on board
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard

George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.

John Jay, by Gilbert Stuart, 1794

John Jay

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American statesman, patriot, diplomat, Founding Father, abolitionist, negotiator, and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

American statesman, patriot, diplomat, Founding Father, abolitionist, negotiator, and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

John Jay, by Gilbert Stuart, 1794
John Jay, by Gilbert Stuart, 1794
Drawing of Sarah Jay by Robert Edge Pine.
Jay's childhood home in Rye, New York is a New York State Historic Site and Westchester County Park
Jay's retirement home near Katonah, New York is a New York State Historic Site
The Treaty of Paris, by Benjamin West (1783) (Jay stands farthest to the left). The British delegation refused to pose for the painting, leaving it unfinished.
Jay as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
The Jay Treaty.
Gubernatorial portrait of Jay.
Certificate of Election of Jay as Governor of New York (June 6, 1795)
John Jay 15¢ Liberty Issue postage stamp, 1958.
Rye, New York Post Office Dedication Stamp and cancellation, September 5, 1936

He served as the second governor of New York and the first chief justice of the United States.

William Rehnquist

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Rehnquist portrait as an Associate Justice in 1972
William Rehnquist (left) takes the oath as Chief Justice from retiring Warren Burger at the White House in 1986, as his wife, Natalie, holds a Bible, President Ronald Reagan and Justice Antonin Scalia look on
Robes worn by Rehnquist while he presided over the impeachment trial of President Clinton, showing the four yellow stripes he added.
Rehnquist at the National Archives Rotunda in 2003
An ailing Chief Justice Rehnquist administers the presidential oath of office to President George W. Bush at his inauguration in 2005, as First Lady Laura Bush looks on. Note: Rehnquist's addition of the gold stripes on his robes
Rehnquist's grave, which is next to his wife, Nan, at Arlington National Cemetery

William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an associate justice from 1972 to 1986 and then as the 16th chief justice from 1986 until his death in 2005.

Official portrait, 2005

John Roberts

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Official portrait, 2005
President Ronald Reagan greeting Roberts in the Oval Office while Roberts was serving as an associate White House Counsel (1983)
Roberts as a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (c. 2004)
President George W. Bush announces Roberts's nomination to be chief justice (2005)
Roberts is sworn in as chief justice by Justice John Paul Stevens in the East Room of the White House as President Bush and Roberts's wife Jane look on, September 29, 2005

John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer and jurist, serving since 2005 as the 17th chief justice of the United States.

John Rutledge

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Self-Described Coat of Arms of John Rutledge
A map showing the battle lines during the British siege in 1780.
Rutledge's likeness at the National Constitution Center
Bust of John Rutledge in the United States Supreme Court
Gravestone of John Rutledge at St. Michael's Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina

John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – June 21, 1800) was an American Founding Father, politician, and jurist who served as one of the original associate justices of the Supreme Court and the second chief justice of the United States.

Clarence Thomas, since October 23, 1991<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Clarence Thomas| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-clarence-thomas/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=May 15, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200515180814/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-clarence-thomas/| url-status=dead}}</ref>

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

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Clarence Thomas, since October 23, 1991<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Clarence Thomas| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-clarence-thomas/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=May 15, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200515180814/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-clarence-thomas/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Stephen Breyer, since August 3, 1994<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Stephen G. Breyer| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-stephen-breyer/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=November 18, 2019| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191118144739/http://www.supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-stephen-breyer/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Samuel Alito, since January 31, 2006<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr.| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-samuel-anthony-alito-jr/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=June 16, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200616065838/http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-samuel-anthony-alito-jr/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sonia Sotomayor, since August 8, 2009<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Sonia Sotomayor| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-sonia-sotomayor/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=March 4, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200304175151/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-sonia-sotomayor/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Elena Kagan, since August 7, 2010<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Elena Kagan| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-elena-kagan/| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=May 24, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200524161410/https://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-elena-kagan/| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Neil Gorsuch, since April 10, 2017<ref>{{Cite web| title=Justice Neil M. Gorsuch| url=http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-neil-gorsuch/index.html| publisher=The Supreme Court Historical Society| location=Washington, D.C.| access-date=January 13, 2018| archive-date=November 22, 2019| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191122034749/http://supremecourthistory.org/history-of-the-court/the-current-court/justice-neil-gorsuch/index.html| url-status=dead}}</ref>
Brett Kavanaugh, since October 6, 2018<ref>{{cite web| url=https://apnews.com/8234f0b8a6194d8b89ff79f9b0c94f35/Kavanaugh-confirmed,-quickly-sworn-in;-major-Trump-victory| title=Kavanaugh sworn to high court after rancorous confirmation| last1=Fram| first1=Alan| last2=Mascaro| first2=Lisa| last3=Daly| first3=Matthew| date=October 6, 2018| website=ap.org| location=New York, New York| access-date=October 6, 2018| archive-date=June 16, 2020| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200616065846/https://apnews.com/8234f0b8a6194d8b89ff79f9b0c94f35/Kavanaugh-confirmed,-quickly-sworn-in;-major-Trump-victory| url-status=live}}</ref>
Amy Coney Barrett, since October 27, 2020<ref>{{cite web|author=Barbara Sprunt|title=Amy Coney Barrett Confirmed To Supreme Court, Takes Constitutional Oath|url=https://www.npr.org/2020/10/26/927640619/senate-confirms-amy-coney-barrett-to-the-supreme-court|website=npr.org|date=October 26, 2020|access-date=October 26, 2020|archive-date=October 27, 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201027012410/https://www.npr.org/2020/10/26/927640619/senate-confirms-amy-coney-barrett-to-the-supreme-court|url-status=live}}</ref>
alt=|Ketanji Brown Jackson,

An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is any member of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the chief justice of the United States.

United States federal judge

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In the United States, federal judges are judges who serve on courts established under Article Three of the U.S. Constitution.

In the United States, federal judges are judges who serve on courts established under Article Three of the U.S. Constitution.

Often known as "Article Three judges", federal judges include the chief justice and associate justices of the U.S. Supreme Court, the circuit judges of the U.S. courts of appeals, the district judges of the U.S. district courts, and the judges of the U.S. Court of International Trade.

Opening of the 112th Congress in the House of Representatives chamber, January 5, 2011

Article One of the United States Constitution

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Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.

Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.

Opening of the 112th Congress in the House of Representatives chamber, January 5, 2011
Gilded Age monopolies could no longer control the U.S. Senate (left) by corrupting state legislatures (right).
The impeachment trial of President Clinton in 1999, with Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding
Newly naturalized citizen Albert Einstein received his certificate of American citizenship from Judge Phillip Forman.
Congress's "power of the purse" authorizes taxing citizens, spending money, issuing notes and minting coins.
Chief Justice John Marshall established a broad interpretation of the Commerce Clause.
Congress authorizes defense spending such as the purchase of the USS Bon Homme Richard.
U.S. brig Perry confronting the slave ship Martha off Ambriz on June 6, 1850

Denying the states their intended role as joint partners in the federal government by abolishing their equality in the Senate would, according to Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase (in Texas v. White), destroy the grounding of the Union.