Child marriage

child marriageschild brideearly marriagechildchild bridesmarriageearly marriagesage of 14 she was marriedat the age of 13at the age of eight
Child marriage is a marriage or similar union, formal or informal, entered into by a child or youth under a certain age, typically age eighteen.wikipedia
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Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
Child marriage is a marriage or similar union, formal or informal, entered into by a child or youth under a certain age, typically age eighteen.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage, polygamy, and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition.

Marriageable age

age of marriagelegal ageminimum age for marriage
The legally prescribed marriageable age in some jurisdictions is below 18 years, especially in the case of girls.
International organizations, such as UNICEF, regard a marriage by a person below the age of 18 as a child marriage and a violation of human rights.

Engagement

fiancéefiancéengaged
Child marriage is related to child betrothal, and it includes civil cohabitation and court approved early marriages after teenage pregnancy.
In the case of child marriage, betrothal might last from infancy until the age of marriage.

Forced marriage

forced marriagesshotgun marriageforced
Some types of it may also be seen as falling along the continuum between forced marriage and arranged marriage.
In 2013, the first United Nations Human Rights Council resolution against child, early, and forced marriages was adopted; the resolution recognizes child, early, and forced marriage as involving violations of human rights which "prevents individuals from living their lives free from all forms of violence and that has adverse consequences on the enjoyment of human rights, such as the right to education, [and] the right to the highest attainable standard of health including sexual and reproductive health", and also states that "the elimination of child, early and forced marriage should be considered in the discussion of the post-2015 development agenda."

Arranged marriage

arrangedarranged marriagesarrange a marriage
Some types of it may also be seen as falling along the continuum between forced marriage and arranged marriage. This includes absuma (arranged marriages set up between cousins at birth in local Islamic ethnic group), bride kidnapping and elopement decided on by the children.
The specific sub-category of forced child marriage is especially condemned.

Types of marriages

form of marriagetype of marriageTypes of marriage
In most nations, bride kidnapping is considered a crime rather than a valid form of marriage.

Bride kidnapping

abductionmarriage by abductionabducted
This includes absuma (arranged marriages set up between cousins at birth in local Islamic ethnic group), bride kidnapping and elopement decided on by the children.
Bride kidnapping is often (but not always) a form of child marriage.

Teenage pregnancy

teen pregnancyteenage pregnanciesadolescent pregnancy
Child marriage is related to child betrothal, and it includes civil cohabitation and court approved early marriages after teenage pregnancy. Even where the age is set at 18 years, cultural traditions may take priority over legislative law and many jurisdictions permit earlier marriage with parental consent or in special circumstances, such as teenage pregnancy.
Laws against child marriage have reduced but not eliminated the practice.

Nujood Ali

Nojoud AliNujood
In April 2008, Nujood Ali, a 10-year-old girl, successfully obtained a divorce after being raped under these conditions.
Nujood Ali (born 1998) is a central figure in Yemen's movement against forced marriage and child marriage.

Romani people

RomaniRomaGypsy
It continues to occur in countries in Central Asia, the Caucasus region, and parts of Africa, and among peoples as diverse as the Hmong in Southeast Asia, the Tzeltal in Mexico, and the Romani in Europe.
Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Before the industrial revolution, in many parts of the world, including India, China and Eastern Europe, women tended to marry immediately after reaching puberty, in their mid-teens.
Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.

Guinea

Republic of GuineaGuineanGuinea-Conakry
The countries with the highest observed rates of child marriages below the age of 18 are Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea and the Central African Republic, with a rate above 60%.
Children, particularly girls, are kept out of school to assist their parents with domestic work or agriculture, or to be married: Guinea has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world.

Dowry

dowriestochertrousseau
Causes of child marriages include poverty, bride price, dowry, cultural traditions, laws that allow child marriages, religious and social pressures, regional customs, fear of remaining unmarried, illiteracy, and perceived inability of women to work for money.
UNICEF notes dowry helps perpetuate child marriage.

Gender inequality

gender inequalitiesgender imbalanceinequality
According to UNFPA, factors that promote and reinforce child marriage include poverty and economic survival strategies; gender inequality; sealing land or property deals or settling disputes; control over sexuality and protecting family honour; tradition and culture; and insecurity, particularly during war, famine or epidemics.
Other key issues are adolescent births, maternal mortality, gender-based violence, child marriage, and female genital mutilation.

Yahya Jammeh

President JammehYahya A.J.J. JammehJammeh
In 2016, during a feast ending the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, the Gambian President Yahya Jammeh announced that child and forced marriages were banned.
After the end of Ramadan and Eid ul-Fitr in July 2016, Jammeh further announced a ban on child marriages.

Obstetric fistula

fistulaobstetrical fistulaobstetrical fistulae
Many governments have tended to overlook the particular problems resulting from child marriage, including obstetric fistulae, premature births, stillbirth, sexually transmitted diseases (including cervical cancer), and malaria.
In sub-Saharan Africa, many girls enter into arranged marriages soon after menarche (usually between the ages of 9 and 15).

Malawi

Republic of MalawiMalawianMalaŵi
In 2015, Malawi passed a law banning child marriage, which raises the minimum age for marriage to 18.
Malawi had one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world.

Honor killing

honour killinghonor killingshonour killings
Girls trying to escape this child marriage can face death because this breaks the honor code of her husband and both families.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as divorcing or separating from their spouse, refusing to enter an arranged, child or forced marriage, being in a relationship or having associations with social groups outside the family that is strongly disapproved by one's family, having premarital or extramarital sex, becoming the victim of rape or sexual assault, dressing in clothing, jewelry and accessories which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.

Afghans in Germany

German-AfghanGermanyAfghan
Syrians represented 664, Afghans 157 and Iraqis 100.
In 2016 there were 157 underage individuals of Afghan origin in child marriages according to the interior ministry.

Child sexual abuse

child molestationchild molestermolested
Girls in child marriages are more likely to suffer from domestic violence, child sexual abuse, and marital rape.
Child marriage is one of the main forms of child sexual abuse; UNICEF has stated that child marriage "represents perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls".

Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsFLDSFLDS Church
Until 2008 the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints practiced child marriage through the concept of "spiritual marriage" as soon as girls were ready to bear children, as part of its polygamy practice, but laws have raised the age of legal marriage in response to criticism of the practice.
As the type of polygamy practiced is polygyny, critics of this lifestyle claim that its practice inevitably leads to bride shortages and likely to child marriages, incest, and child abuse.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
Girls in child marriages are more likely to suffer from domestic violence, child sexual abuse, and marital rape.
Domestic violence often happens in the context of forced or child marriage.

UNICEF

United Nations Children's FundUnited Nations Children’s FundUnited Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
UNICEF reports that the top five nations in the world with highest observed child marriage rates – Niger (75%), Chad (72%), Mali (71%), Bangladesh (64%), Guinea (63%) – are Islamic majority countries.

International Day of the Girl Child

International Day of the GirlUN's International Day of the Girl
In December 2011 a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/66/170) designated October 11 as the International Day of the Girl Child.
This inequality includes areas such as access to education, nutrition, legal rights, medical care, and protection from discrimination, violence against women and forced child marriage.