Childbirth

laborbirthlabourdeliverymaternity wardlabor and deliverychild birthborngiving birthmaternity
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section.wikipedia
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Pregnancy

pregnantfirst trimesterpregnant women
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. Cervical effacement, which is the thinning and stretching of the cervix, and cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks of pregnancy.
Childbirth typically occurs around 40 weeks from the start of the last menstrual period (LMP).

Cervical dilation

dilatedilationcervical dilator
It involves three stages of labour: the shortening and opening of the cervix, descent and birth of the baby, and the delivery of the placenta. Cervical effacement, which is the thinning and stretching of the cervix, and cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks of pregnancy.
Cervical dilation (or cervical dilatation) is the opening of the cervix, the entrance to the uterus, during childbirth, miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological surgery.

Cephalic presentation

cephalicVertex presentationengaged
Most babies are born head first; however about 4% are born feet or buttock first, known as breech.
A cephalic presentation or head presentation or head-first presentation is a situation at childbirth where the fetus is in a longitudinal lie and the head enters the pelvis first; the most common form of cephalic presentation is the vertex presentation where the occiput is the leading part (the part that first enters the birth canal).

Placenta

placental barrierchorioallantoic placentaafterbirth
It involves three stages of labour: the shortening and opening of the cervix, descent and birth of the baby, and the delivery of the placenta.
The placenta is expelled from the body upon birth of the fetus.

Traditional birth attendant

lay midwife
In the developed world most deliveries occur in hospitals, while in the developing world most births take place at home with the support of a traditional birth attendant.
A traditional birth attendant (TBA), also known as a traditional midwife, community midwife or lay midwife, is a pregnancy and childbirth care provider.

Postpartum bleeding

postpartum hemorrhagepostpartum haemorrhagepost-partum haemorrhage
Specific complications include obstructed labour, postpartum bleeding, eclampsia, and postpartum infection.
Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.

Obstructed labour

dystociaobstructed labordifficult birth
Specific complications include obstructed labour, postpartum bleeding, eclampsia, and postpartum infection.
Obstructed labour, also known as labour dystocia, is when the baby does not exit the pelvis during childbirth due to being physically blocked, despite the uterus contracting normally.

Fetal distress

fetal compromisefetal heart rate abnormalitiesfetal stress
Caesarean sections may be recommended for twins, signs of distress in the baby, or breech position.
Fetal distress refers to the presence of signs in a pregnant woman —before or during childbirth—that suggest that the fetus may not be well.

Eclampsia

eclamptic psychosispre-eclampsia or eclampsiapregnancy-induced
Specific complications include obstructed labour, postpartum bleeding, eclampsia, and postpartum infection.
Onset may be before, during, or after delivery.

Birth trauma (physical)

birth traumabirth injurybirth-related
Complications in the baby may include lack of oxygen at birth, birth trauma, prematurity, and infections.
Birth trauma (BT) refers to damage of the tissues and organs of a newly delivered child, often as a result of physical pressure or trauma during childbirth.

Vagina

birth canalvaginalvaginal opening
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section.
The vagina may also be referred to as "the birth canal" in the context of pregnancy and childbirth.

Oxytocin

oxytocicsfirst synthesis of a polypeptide hormoneBonding in mammals
During the later stages of gestation there is an increase in abundance of oxytocin, a hormone that is known to evoke feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security around the mate.
It plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the period after childbirth.

Postpartum depression

post-natal depressionpostnatal depressionpost-partum depression
Postpartum depression may develop in some women; about 10% of mothers in the United States are diagnosed with this condition.
Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.

Bishop score

A scoring system called a Bishop score can be used to judge the degree of cervical ripening in order to predict the timing of labor and delivery of the infant or for women at risk for preterm labor.
Bishop score, also Bishop's score, also known as cervix score is a pre-labor scoring system to assist in predicting whether induction of labor will be required.

Labor induction

induction of laborinduce laborinduce labour
It is also used to judge when a woman will respond to induction of labor for a postdate pregnancy or other medical reasons.
Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.

Perineal tear

Perineal tear classificationPerineal lacerationbeen torn
Labours longer than three hours are associated with declining rates of spontaneous vaginal delivery and increasing rates of infection, perineal tears, and obstetric hemorrhage, as well as the need for intensive care of the neonate.
Perineal tears mainly occur in women as a result of vaginal childbirth, which strains the perineum.

Cervix

cervicalcervical mucuscervix uteri
Cervical effacement, which is the thinning and stretching of the cervix, and cervical dilation occur during the closing weeks of pregnancy.
During vaginal childbirth, the cervix must flatten and dilate to allow the fetus to progress along the birth canal.

Postpartum period

postpartumpostnatalpuerperium
The terms postpartum and postnatal are often used for this period.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.

Placental expulsion

afterbirthexpelledManual placenta removal
Placental expulsion begins as a physiological separation from the wall of the uterus.
Placental expulsion (also called afterbirth) occurs when the placenta comes out of the birth canal after childbirth.

Back labor

Back labour
Back labour is a term for specific pain occurring in the lower back, just above the tailbone, during childbirth.
Back labor (less commonly called posterior labor ) is a term referring to sensations of pain or discomfort that occur in the lower back, just above the tailbone, to a mother during childbirth.

Perineum

perinealperineal bodyanogenital
Following the birth, if the mother had an episiotomy or a tearing of the perineum, it is stitched.
Perineal tears and episiotomy often occur in childbirth with first-time deliveries, but the risk of these injuries can be reduced by preparing the perineum, often through massage.

Oxytocin (medication)

oxytocinpitocinSyntocinon
Pitocin is commonly used to induce uterine contractions.
As a medication, it is used to cause contraction of the uterus to start labor, increase the speed of labor, and to stop bleeding following delivery.

Placental abruption

abruptio placentaeabruptionabruptio placenta
Placental abruption is when the placenta separates early from the uterus, in other words separates before childbirth.

Prelabor rupture of membranes

premature rupture of membranesprolonged rupture of membranesPremature rupture of the membranes
Prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM), previously known as premature rupture of membranes, is breakage of the amniotic sac before the onset of labor.

Infant

neonatalinfancynewborn
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves a woman's uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section.
During labour and birth, the infant's skull changes shape to fit through the birth canal, sometimes causing the child to be born with a misshapen or elongated head.