Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHICHLCLcountrynorthern ChileChilean governmentChilean StateChileans
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.wikipedia
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Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south.
Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.

Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian
It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south.
It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Juan Fernández Islands

Juan Fernandez IslandsJuan FernándezJuan Fernandez
Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania.
Situated 670 km off the coast of Chile, they are composed of three main volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and a non-sovereign area (the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by Argentina).

Chilean Antarctic Territory

ChileanChilean Antarctic claimsChilean Antarctica
Chile also claims about 1250000 km2 of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory.
The Chilean Antarctic Territory or Chilean Antarctica (Spanish: Territorio Chileno Antártico, Antártica Chilena) is the territory in Antarctica claimed by Chile.

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south.
It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru.

Oceania

South PacificPacificSouthwest Pacific
Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania.
Definitions of Oceania vary; however, the islands at the geographic extremes of Oceania are generally considered to be the Bonin Islands, a politically integral part of Japan; Hawaii, a state of the United States; Clipperton Island, a possession of France; the Juan Fernández Islands, belonging to Chile; and Macquarie Island, belonging to Australia.

Fjords and channels of Chile

Patagonian channelsFjords and channels of Patagoniaarchipelago and fjord region
The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.
The southern coast of Chile presents a large number of fjords and fjord-like channels from the latitudes of Cape Horn (55° S) to Reloncaví Estuary (42° S).

Conquest of Chile

Spanish conquestconquestarrival of the Spanish
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.
The Conquest of Chile is a period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Easter Island

Rapa NuiIsla de PascuaEaster
Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania.
Chile annexed Easter Island in 1888.

Mapuche

AraucanianMapuche peopleMapuches
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

War of the Pacific

Pacific WarSaltpeter Warconquered land from Peru and Bolivia
In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia.
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War (Guerra del salitre) and by multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance.

Incas in Central Chile

a large portionconquest of northern ChileInca attempt to conquer Chile
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.
Inca rule in Chile was brief; it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed.

Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–1990)

military dictatorshipPinochet dictatorshipChile
This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.
The military dictatorship of Chile (dictadura militar de Chile) was an authoritarian military regime that ruled Chile for seventeen years, between September 11, 1973 and March 11, 1990.

Desventuradas Islands

DesventuradasSan AmbrosioSan Felix-San Ambrosio Islands temperate forests
Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania.
The Desventuradas Islands (Islas Desventuradas, "Unfortunate Islands" or Islas de los Desventurados, "Islands of the Unfortunate Ones" ) is a group of four small islands located 850 km off the coast of Chile, northwest of Santiago in the Pacific Ocean.

Chilean Declaration of Independence

declaration of independenceindependenceAct of Independence
After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic.
The Chilean Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the independence of Chile from the Spanish Empire.

Salvador Allende

AllendeSalvador Allende GossensPresident Allende
This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (, ; 26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean democratic socialist politician and physician, President of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity political coalition government; he was the first ever Marxist to be elected president in a country with liberal democracy.

Concertación

Concert of Parties for DemocracyCoalition of Parties for DemocracyConcertación de Partidos por la Democracia
The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The Concertación (full Spanish name: Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia, English: Coalition of Parties for Democracy) was a coalition of center-left political parties in Chile, founded in 1988.

Pacific Alliance

President ''pro tempore'' of the Pacific AllianceAlianza del PacíficoPresident pro tempore of the Pacific Alliance
Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Pacific Alliance, and joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010.
The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.

Pali-Aike volcanic field

Pali Aike CraterPalei-Aike Volc FieldPali Aike National Park
Settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube.
Pali-Aike volcanic field is a volcanic field in Argentina which straddles the border with Chile.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls"; from the Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends;" or from the Quechua chiri, "cold", or tchili, meaning either "snow" or "the deepest point of the Earth".
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the United States.

Strait of Magellan

Straits of MagellanMagellan StraitMagellan Straits
In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him (the Strait of Magellan) thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile.
The Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.

Picunche

MapochoesPicunche peopleMapuche groups
According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking Chilean people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

Monte Verde

Monte Verde Archaeological SiteSitio de Monte Verde
Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago.
Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to as early as 18,500 cal BP (16,500 BC).

Diego de Almagro

AlmagroAlmagristasDiego Almagro
The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli".
From Peru Almagro led an expedition that made him the second European to set foot in central Chile (after Gonzalo Calvo de Barrientos).