China

China (today's Guangdong), Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a marble bridge) are all shown as separate regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius
10,000 years old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 BCE)
Yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century BCE)
China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent
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The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers. The image shows a celebration ceremony inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City after the signing of the Boxer Protocol in 1901.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, one of the first republics in Asia.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong toasting together in 1945 following the end of World War II
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.
The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests was ended by a military-led massacre which brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Satellite image of China from NASA WorldWind
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for mainland China.
A giant panda, China's most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan
The Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE
Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world.
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, one of the first Chinese spaceports
Internet penetration rates in China in the context of East Asia and Southeast Asia, 1995–2012
The Duge Bridge is the highest bridge in the world.
The Beijing Daxing International Airport features the world's largest single-building airport terminal.
The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is the world's busiest container port since 2010.
A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.
Ethnolinguistic map of China
A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü language on the top
Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)
Beijing's Peking University, one of the top-ranked universities in China
Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010
Geographic distribution of religions in China.  
 Chinese folk religion (including Confucianism, Taoism, and groups of Chinese Buddhism)
 Buddhism tout court
 Islam
 Ethnic minorities' indigenous religions
 Mongolian folk religion
 Northeast China folk religion influenced by Tungus and Manchu shamanism; widespread Shanrendao
Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.
A Moon gate in a Chinese garden.
The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking opera.
Map showing major regional cuisines of China
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.
Long March 2F launching Shenzhou spacecraft. China is one of the only three countries with independent human spaceflight capability.
Lihaozhai High School in Jianshui, Yunnan. The sign is in Hani (Latin alphabet), Nisu (Yi script), and Chinese.

Country in East Asia.

- China

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A sheet of fibres which were just collected from the liquid suspension with the screen. The next steps are to press it and to dry it.

Papermaking

Manufacture of paper and cardboard, which are used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes.

Manufacture of paper and cardboard, which are used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes.

A sheet of fibres which were just collected from the liquid suspension with the screen. The next steps are to press it and to dry it.
The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 CE.
Early Xi'An hemp paper, dated to at least 87 BC
Woodcuts depicting the five seminal steps in ancient Chinese papermaking. From the 1637 Tiangong Kaiwu of the Ming dynasty.
The Tervakoski Paper Mill in Tervakoski, Janakkala, Finland

Hemp paper had been used in China for wrapping and padding since the eighth century BCE.

A 15th-century portrait of the Ming official Jiang Shunfu. The decoration of two egrets on his chest are a "mandarin square", indicating that he was a civil official of the sixth rank.

Scholar-official

The scholar-officials, also known as literati, scholar-gentlemen or scholar-bureaucrats, were government officials and prestigious scholars in Chinese society, forming a distinct social class.

The scholar-officials, also known as literati, scholar-gentlemen or scholar-bureaucrats, were government officials and prestigious scholars in Chinese society, forming a distinct social class.

A 15th-century portrait of the Ming official Jiang Shunfu. The decoration of two egrets on his chest are a "mandarin square", indicating that he was a civil official of the sixth rank.
Scholars depicted on Han dynasty pictorial brick, discovered in Chengdu. Scholars wore hats called Jinxian Guan (进贤冠) to denominate educational status.

Scholar-officials were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

Antarctica and countries in purple are those without any land border

List of countries and territories by land borders

This list of countries and territories by land borders gives the number of distinct land borders of each country or territory, as well the names of its neighbouring countries and territories.

This list of countries and territories by land borders gives the number of distinct land borders of each country or territory, as well the names of its neighbouring countries and territories.

Antarctica and countries in purple are those without any land border
Countries by land border length

Longest land border: 🇨🇳 China: 22,147 km

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Standardized test

Test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.

Test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.

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Two men take an authentic, non-written, criterion-referenced standardized test. If they perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the mannequin with the correct speed and pressure, they will pass this exam.
British soldiers took standardized tests during the Second World War. This new recruit is sorting mechanical parts to test his understanding of machinery. His uniform shows no name, rank, or other sign that might bias the scoring of his work.
Scoring form for driving tests in the UK. Every person who wants a driver's license takes the same test and gets scored in the same way.
Some standardized testing uses multiple-choice tests, which are relatively inexpensive to score, but any form of assessment can be used.
A past standardized testing paper using multiple choice questions and answering them in the form as shown above.

The earliest evidence of standardized testing was in China, during the Han Dynasty, where the imperial examinations covered the Six Arts which included music, archery, horsemanship, arithmetic, writing, and knowledge of the rituals and ceremonies of both public and private parts.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–94

Mongol invasions and conquests

The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire: the Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered large parts of Eurasia.

The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire: the Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered large parts of Eurasia.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–94
Battle of Vâliyân against the Khwarazmian dynasty.
Siege of Baghdad in 1258.
Battle of Yehuling against the Jin dynasty.
Mongol Empire's conquest of Chinese regimes including Western Liao, Jurchen Jin, Song, Western Xia and Dali kingdoms.
The Battle of Legnica took place during the first Mongol invasion of Poland.
The Mongol invasion in the 13th century led to construction of mighty stone castles, such as Spiš Castle in Slovakia.
The conquests of Genghis Khan

Mongols continued to rule China into the 14th century under the Yuan dynasty, while Mongol rule in Persia persisted into the 15th century under the Timurid Empire.

Chinese Communist Party

Site of the first CCP Congress, in the former Shanghai French Concession
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
Chinese communists celebrate Joseph Stalin's birthday, 1949.
A temporary monument displayed in Changsha, Hunan Province, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the CCP's founding
A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai
A billboard advertising Xi Jinping Thought in Shenzhen, Guangdong
The 18th National Congress, convened in November 2012
Front cover of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party
Xi Jinping (second from left) with Enrique Peña Nieto (second from right), the former President of Mexico and a leading member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party
Badge given to party members

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Birthplaces of notable Chinese philosophers from Hundred Schools of Thought in the Zhou dynasty.

Hundred Schools of Thought

Birthplaces of notable Chinese philosophers from Hundred Schools of Thought in the Zhou dynasty.

The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century BC to 221 BC during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.

Chen Duxiu's journal New Youth played a major role in publicizing Marxist ideas to a wider Chinese audience during the New Culture Movement of the 1910s and 20s.

Chinese Communist Revolution

Chen Duxiu's journal New Youth played a major role in publicizing Marxist ideas to a wider Chinese audience during the New Culture Movement of the 1910s and 20s.
The May Fourth Movement radicalized the New Culture Movement. For the first time, the general urban population became involved in political demonstrations and many future Communist leaders were converted to Marxism.
Location of the 1st National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, on Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai.
Shanghai workers posing with weapons in 1927. After successfully ousting the Zhili Clique and handing the city over to the Kuomintang, the Communist-allied workers were massacred.
After 1927, the Communists retreated to the countryside and began a series of rural insurgencies, organized as Soviets.
Eventually, the Communist insurgents were defeated and the CCP was forced to withdraw northwards in the Long March.
During WWII, one of the Communist units that joined the National Revolutionary Army was the Eighth Route Army, pictured here on the Great Wall.
Starting in 1937 and lasting until the end of the Civil War, hyperinflation skyrocketed in the Republic of China.
Japanese occupation (red) of eastern China near the end of the war, and Communist bases (striped)
The Soviet Red Army invaded Manchuria in August 1945.
Chinese Communist soldiers march north to occupy rural Manchuria, 1945.
Mao and Chiang Kai-Shek toast to victory over Japan in Chongqing, during negotiations.
Communist soldiers wait in trenches during the Campaign to Defend Siping, 1946.
Chinese FT tanks
After defeating the Kuomintang in Manchuria, the PLA (shown in color) launched a series of campaigns that conquered southern China.
The Nationalists' retreat to Taipei: after the Nationalists lost Nanjing (Nanking) they next moved to Guangzhou (Canton), then to Chongqing (Chungking), Chengdu (Chengtu) and finally, Xichang (Sichang) before arriving in Taipei.
Badge of MAAG ROC in Vietnam War.
Poster of Chinese rebels in Sarawak, Malaysia.

The Chinese Communist Revolution, officially known as the Chinese People's War of Liberation in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and also known as the National Protection War against the Communist Rebellion in the Republic of China (ROC) was a period of social and political revolution in China that began with the founding of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921, continued through the First United Front of the 1920s.

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state

Yuan dynasty

Successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and an imperial dynasty of China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.

Successor state to the Mongol Empire after its division and an imperial dynasty of China established by Kublai (Emperor Shizu), leader of the Mongol Borjigin clan, lasting from 1271 to 1368.

Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Mongol successor khanates
Yuan dynasty (c. 1294)
Goryeo was a semi-autonomous vassal state
Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty
Guan Daosheng "the most famous and talented female painter and calligrapher in Chinese history" flourished in the Yuan dynasty
The Bailin Temple Pagoda of Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province, built in 1330 during the Yuan dynasty
A Yuan dynasty jade swan
A Yuan dynasty blue-and-white porcelain dish with fish and flowing water design, mid-14th century, Freer Gallery of Art
Yuan porcelain jar
Yuan underglaze blue Jingdezhen porcelain plate
A plate made of lacquer, wood, and paper from the Yuan dynasty. The Chinese were able to perfect a method of making lacquer. Decorating this plate are parrots and peonies. The parrot was a symbol of fidelity; because of its ability to mimic human speech, it was believed to be a suitable companion to a woman whose husband was away from home. The bird would be able to inform each person of the other's activities. The peony was a symbol of female virtue. When shown in full bloom, it is a token of love, affection, and feminine beauty. Birmingham Museum of Art.
The Yuan dynasty arched bridges of Taicang were built to show the prosperity the city enjoyed under the Yuan.
Yuan dynasty coinage
Map of the Northwest territory
A diagram of Pascal's triangle in Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, written in 1303
Yang Hui's Magic Circle
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing plate, 1287
A revolving typecase with individual movable type characters from Wang Zhen's Nong Shu, published in 1313
Blue-and-white Covered Jar with Fretwork Floral Design in Red and Blue Glaze, excavated in Baoding
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280
Wine jar with fish and aquatic plants, 14th century. Porcelain with underglaze cobalt blue decoration. Brooklyn Museum.
Manichaean Diagram of the Universe, a painting describing Yuan period Manichaean cosmology
A Yuan Qingbai porcelain statue of Guanyin, a bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism
Box with pavilion and figures, Yuan dynasty.
Covered box with lunar palace, 14th century. Yuan dynasty.
Jinan Great Southern Mosque was completed during the reign of Temür Khan (the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan).
Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty.
Mongol Empire's Ayimaq in North China
Magic square in Arabic numerals (Yuan dynasty)
smelting machines (Yuan dynasty)
Water wheel (Yuan dynasty)
Water hammer (Yuan dynasty)
Weaving machine (Yuan dynasty)
water mill gear (Yuan dynasty)
loom (Yuan dynasty)
Yuan painting (Zhao Mengfu)
Chuangzi Nu (Yuan dynasty)<ref name="bm">{{cite web |url = http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=November 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20091202081843/http://www.grandhistorian.com/chinesesiegewarfare/index-english12122007.html |archive-date=December 2, 2009 }}</ref>
Military costume.
Yuan painting of a legendary figure riding on a dragon.
Yuan cavalry
Yuan Mongol soldier
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan during his youth
Mongol rider (Yuan dynasty)
Chinese stone inscription of a Nestorian Christian Cross from a monastery of Fangshan District in Beijing (then called Dadu, or Khanbaliq), dated to the Yuan Dynasty

His realm was, by this point, isolated from the other Mongol khanates and controlled most of modern-day China and its surrounding areas, including modern Mongolia.

Sui provinces, ca. 610

Direct-administered municipalities of China

Highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China.

Highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China.

Sui provinces, ca. 610

Three levels of cities in the People's Republic of China: