Chinese Indonesians

Chineseethnic ChineseChinese IndonesianIndonesiaChinese-Indonesianperanakan'' ChineseHakka ChineseTionghoaTionghoa-peranakanIndonesians of Chinese descent
Chinese Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Indonesia keturunan Tionghoa) or (in Indonesia) simply Tionghoa (undefined), are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, primarily the Han Chinese.wikipedia
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Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians

anti-Chinese racismethnic Chineseanti-Chinese
Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians has occurred since the start of Dutch colonialism in the region, although government policies implemented since 1998 have attempted to redress this.
Discrimination against people of Chinese descent in Indonesia has been carried out by governments in Indonesia since the time of the Dutch East India Company.

Native Indonesians

nativenative Indonesianpribumi
Resentment of ethnic Chinese economic aptitude grew in the 1950s as native Indonesian merchants felt they could not remain competitive. Under the New Order of President Suharto, citizens of Chinese descent were formally classified as "Indonesian citizens of foreign descent" (Warga Negara Indonesia keturunan asing). In public discourse they were distinguished from native Indonesians as "non-native" (non-pribumi or non-pri).
Native Indonesians, also Pribumi (literally "first on the soil"), is a term used to distinguish Indonesians whose ancestral roots lie mainly in the archipelago from Indonesians of known (partial) foreign descent, like Chinese Indonesians, Arab Indonesians, Indian Indonesians and Indo-Europeans (Eurasians).

Indonesians

IndonesianIndonesiaIndonesian citizen
Chinese Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Indonesia keturunan Tionghoa) or (in Indonesia) simply Tionghoa (undefined), are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, primarily the Han Chinese.
Around 95% of Indonesians are Native Indonesians (formerly grouped as "Pribumi"), with Javanese forming the majority, while the other 5% are Indonesians with ancestry from foreign origin, such as Chinese Indonesians.

Abdurrahman Wahid

WahidAbdurrahman “Gus Dur” WahidGus Dur
Indonesia's president Abdurrahman Wahid (1940-2009) is widely believed to have some Chinese ancestry, but he did not regard himself as Chinese. Along with one of his envoys James Riady, son of financial magnate Mochtar Riady, Habibie appealed to Chinese Indonesians seeking refuge throughout East Asia, Australia, and North America to return and promised security from various government ministries as well as other political figures, such as Abdurrahman Wahid and Amien Rais.
His family is ethnically Javanese of mixed Chinese-Arab origins with some native blood.

Totok

Totok (Dutch Indonesians)Dutch
Within this cultural definition, a distinction has commonly been made between peranakan and totok Chinese.
Totok is an Indonesian language term of unknown origin colloquially used in Indonesia to refer to individuals of foreign (Dutch, other European or Chinese descent) who lived in the Dutch East Indies until Indonesian independence in 1945.

Java War (1741–1743)

Java Wartwo-year war1741–1743 Java War
Following the 1740 Batavia massacre and ensuing war, in which the Chinese rebelled against the Dutch, the Dutch attempted to place a quota on the number of Chinese who could enter the Indies.
The Java War of 1741 to 1743 was an armed struggle by a joint Chinese and Javanese army against the Dutch colonial government and pro-Dutch Javanese that took place in central and eastern Java.

1740 Batavia massacre

Chinese Massacre of 1740Batavia Massacremassacred
Following the 1740 Batavia massacre and ensuing war, in which the Chinese rebelled against the Dutch, the Dutch attempted to place a quota on the number of Chinese who could enter the Indies.
The 1740 Batavia massacre (Chinezenmoord, literally "Murder of the Chinese"; Geger Pacinan, meaning "Chinatown Tumult") was a pogrom in which Dutch East Indies soldiers and native collaborators killed ethnic Chinese residents of the port city of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies.

Dutch East Indies

DutchNetherlands East IndiesEast Indies
Both the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch colonial government (from 1815) applied complex systems of ethnic classification to their subjects, based on religion, culture and place of origin.

Phoa Keng Hek

Phoa Keng Hek ''SiaPhoa Keng Hek Sia
In its effort to build Chinese-speaking schools the association argued that the teaching of the English and Chinese languages should be prioritized over Dutch, to provide themselves with the means of taking, in the words of Phoa Keng Hek, "a two or three-day voyage (Java–Singapore) into a wider world where they can move freely" and overcome restrictions of their activities.
Phoa Keng Hek Sia (1857–1937) was a Chinese Indonesian social activist and first president of Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan, an influential Confucian educational and social organisation meant to better the position of ethnic Chinese in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).

New Order (Indonesia)

New OrderNew Order regimeNew Order administration
The New Order government (1967–1998) dismantled the pillars of ethnic Chinese identity in favor of assimilation policies as a solution to the "Chinese Problem".
In 1966 to 1967, to promote assimiiation of the influential Chinese Indonesians, the Suharto government passed several laws as part of the so-called "Basic Policy for the Solution of Chinese Problem", whereby only one Chinese-language publication (controlled by the army) was allowed to continue, all Chinese cultural and religious expressions (including display of Chinese characters) were prohibited from public space, Chinese schools were phased out, and the ethnic Chinese were encouraged to take Indonesian-sounding names.

Loa Sek Hie

Championed by the Volksraad's Chinese representatives, such as Hok Hoei Kan, Loa Sek Hie and Phoa Liong Gie, this movement gained momentum and reached its peak with the Chung Hwa Congress of 1927 and the 1928 formation of the Chung Hwa Hui party, which elected Kan as its president.
Loa Sek Hie Sia (born in Batavia in 1898 - died in The Hague in 1965) was a Chinese-Indonesian colonial politician, parliamentarian and founding Voorzitter or chairman of the controversial, ethnic-Chinese self-defense force Pao An Tui (1946 - 1949).

Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan

The Chinese revolutionary figure Sun Yat-sen visited southeast Asia in 1900, and, later that year, the socio-religious organization Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan, also known as the Chinese Association, was founded.
Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK, ) was an Indonesian Chinese organization founded on March 17, 1900 in Batavia, Dutch East Indies.

Ong Eng Die

Ong Eng Die became a government minister in the Indonesian Republic.
Ong Eng Die (born 20 June 1910), was a Chinese Indonesian politician and economist.

Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66

anti-communist purgea violent anti-communist purgea violent purge of communists throughout the country
Subsequent migrations occurred in 1960 as part of a repatriation program and in 1965–1966 following a series of anti-communist violence that also drew anger toward the ethnic Chinese.
The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 (also variously known as the Indonesian massacres, Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, Indonesian politicide, or the 1965 Tragedy) were large-scale killings and civil unrest that occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting communist sympathizers, ethnic Chinese and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government.

Sino-Indonesian Dual Nationality Treaty

Dual Nationality Treatyagreement on dual nationalityDual Nationality Agreement
After several attempts by both governments to resolve this issue, Indonesia and China signed a Dual Nationality Treaty on the sidelines of the 1955 Asian–African Conference in Bandung.
The Sino-Indonesian Dual Nationality Treaty was a bilateral agreement between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia that forced Chinese Indonesians with dual nationality of both countries to choose citizenship of just one.

Legislation on Chinese Indonesians

127/U/Kep/12/1966anti-Chinese legislationlegislation
These regulations culminated in the enactment of Presidential Regulation 10 in November 1959, banning retail services by non-indigenous persons in rural areas.
Indonesian law affecting Chinese-Indonesians were conducted through a series of laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the Government of Indonesia that affected the lives of Chinese Indonesians or Chinese nationals living in Indonesia since the nation's independence.

Chinese Indonesian surname

Indonesian-sounding namesliong(黄) Widjaja
Expressions of Chinese culture through language, religion, and traditional festivals were banned and the ethnic Chinese were pressured to adopt Indonesian-sounding names.
Over time, especially under social and political pressure during the New Order era, most Chinese Indonesians have adopted names that better match the local language.

Suharto

SoehartoPresident SuhartoGeneral Suharto
Under the New Order of President Suharto, citizens of Chinese descent were formally classified as "Indonesian citizens of foreign descent" (Warga Negara Indonesia keturunan asing). In public discourse they were distinguished from native Indonesians as "non-native" (non-pribumi or non-pri).
In 1966 to 1967, to promote assimilation of the influential Chinese-Indonesians, the Suharto government passed several laws as part of so-called "Basic Policy for the Solution of Chinese Problem", whereby only one Chinese-language publication (controlled by the army) was allowed to continue, all Chinese cultural and religious expressions (including display of Chinese characters) were prohibited from public space, Chinese schools were phased-out, and the ethnic-Chinese were encouraged to take-up Indonesian-sounding names.

Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies

Japanese occupationJapanese occupation of the IndiesJapanese occupied the Indies
This division resurfaced at the end of the period of Japanese occupation (1942–1945).
Japanese aggression in Manchuria and China in the late 1930s caused anxiety amongst the Chinese in Indonesia who set up funds to support the anti-Japanese effort.

May 1998 riots of Indonesia

May 1998 riotsriotsAnti-Chinese riots
The incident sparked major violence in several cities during 12–15 May.
The main targets of the violence were ethnic Chinese; however, most of the casualties occurred among the Javanese Indonesian looters due to a massive fire.

Peranakan

Straits ChinesePeranakan Chinesenyonya
Within this cultural definition, a distinction has commonly been made between peranakan and totok Chinese.
The 1998 anti-Chinese riots in Indonesia during the fall of Suharto had terrorised many Chinese Indonesians and Peranakans alike causing Chinese Indonesian communities that are affected by the riots to leave the country.

James Riady

JamesLi Bai
Along with one of his envoys James Riady, son of financial magnate Mochtar Riady, Habibie appealed to Chinese Indonesians seeking refuge throughout East Asia, Australia, and North America to return and promised security from various government ministries as well as other political figures, such as Abdurrahman Wahid and Amien Rais.
He is a Chinese Indonesian, and also the son of Mochtar Riady, who founded Lippo.

Arab Indonesians

ArabArabsArab Indonesian
Ethnic Chinese, Arab, and Dutch businessmen were specifically targeted during its enforcement to provide a more favorable market for indigenous businesses.
They were generally from upper strata and classified as "foreign orientals" (Vreemde Oosterlingen) along with Chinese Indonesians by the Dutch colonists, which led to them being unable to attend certain schools and restricted from travelling, and having to settle in special Arab districts, or Kampung Arab.

Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia

An integrationist movement, led by the Chinese-Indonesian organisation Baperki (Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia), began to gather interest in 1963, including that of President Sukarno.
Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia (Baperki) was an organization founded in Indonesia in 1954 by Indonesians of Chinese descent.

Liem Koen Hian

Four members of the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (BPUPK) were Chinese: Liem Koen Hian, Oey Tiang Tjoei, Oey Tjong Hauw and Tan Eng Hoa.
In the late 1920s, however, influenced by the ideas of Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo, he began to argue for an Indies citizenship (Indische burgerschap) which would encompass Chinese Indonesians (hoakiauw) resident in what he called Lam Yang (Indonesia), as well as Native Indonesians and Eurasians.