A report on Jakarta and Chinese Indonesians

Chinese junks Sin Tong Heng and Tek Hwa Seng in the Sambu Island, Singapore Strait, c. undefined 1936
Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
Chinese workers from Swatow await the preparation of their contracts by immigration officials at Medan's labor inspectorate, Belawan c. undefined 1920–1940
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.
Batavia around 1780
Chinese-language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Pao An Tui or "The Chinese Police" in Bagansiapiapi, which played a major role in maintaining peace and order among Chinese community
Aerial view of North Jakarta
Restrictions on rural non-indigenous retail businesses in 1959 led to rapid urbanization of the ethnic Chinese community.
Ancol beach
1967 photo of a Chinese-Indonesian family of Hubei ancestry
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
Anti-Chinese sentiment reached its peak in May 1998, when major riots swept over Jakarta.
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
Mari Elka Pangestu, Chinese Indonesian minister during the 2004-2014 cabinet.
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
During the 2000 census, the peak of the ethnic Chinese population pyramid occurred in the 15–19 age group. The male population is shown in blue, and the female is in pink.
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
The Chinese district of Medan, North Sumatra, in 1925; The city is home to the largest Chinese population by number in Sumatra, also the second largest nationally after Jakarta.
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
The Chinese New Year celebration in Chinese Town in Senapelan, Pekanbaru, Riau.
Ancol Gondola
Population estimates of the peranakan (shown in red) and totok (in pink) throughout the 20th century
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
Identity card of The Hong Eng, c. undefined 1943, indicating her Chinese ethnicity during the occupation of the Dutch East Indies by Japan
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.
Bank Indonesia head office
Shophouses in Batavia with Chinese signs along the front of the shophouse
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Hakka Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Tjhoen Tjhioe; (春秋), was one of a Chinese Peranakan newspaper during colonial era
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
Ouw Peh Tjoa, one of early chinese folktale-based story which was made and released in the colonial Indonesia, directed by The Teng Chun
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Two storey Chinese-style shophouses in Glodok, Jakarta, c.1972
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
Traditional Peranakan-style house in Bagansiapiapi, Riau
University of Indonesia campus
Local Chinese-Indonesian students writing in Chinese calligraphy
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Kong Miao Confucian Temple in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Vihara Eka Dharma Manggala, a Buddhist Temple in Samarinda, East Kalimantan
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Geredja Keristen Tionghoa or Chinese Christian Church in Jakarta, c.1952
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Cheng Ho Mosque in Surabaya, East Java
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Shopping street in the Chinese districts on Java island, circa 1940-1950
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
The distribution map of the origins of Chinese Indonesians. Majority of their ancestral are from Fujian or Guangdong province origins with small community from Hainan island, Guangxi and the rest are from other provinces in Northern China
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Gate paifang of Kampung Ketandan Chinatown, Yogyakarta, 2018
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Benteng Chinese wedding in Jakarta, 2012. Benteng people are one of Peranakan community that still exist until today, mostly concentrated in Tangerang, Jakarta and its outskirt area
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.

- Jakarta

According to 2010 population census, 22.3 percent of Chinese Indonesians lived in the capital city of Jakarta, located on the island of Java.

- Chinese Indonesians

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Overall

Official portrait, 1973

Suharto

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Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Official portrait, 1973
Official portrait, 1993
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, c. 1947
Official portrait of Suharto and Siti Hartinah, c. date unknown
Suharto with his wife and six children, c. 1967
In his office as the head of the Strategic Reserve, c. 1963
President Sukarno (with glasses) 
in Disneyland, c. 1961
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals, 5 October 1965
The Supersemar document transferring the authority to restore security to Suharto in 1966
Suharto taking the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968
Suharto's right-hand man Ali Murtopo, c. 1982
Street art depicting Suharto as the father of development, c. 1985
Official portrait, c. 1983
Official portrait, c. 1988
Suharto and his wife in Islamic attire after performing the hajj in 1991
Official portrait, c. 1998
Suharto reads his resignation speech at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. His vice president and successor, B. J. Habibie, is on his left hand side
Suharto in 1998

As company commander, he conducted training for new PETA recruits in Surakarta, Jakarta, and Madiun.

To promote assimilation of the influential Chinese-Indonesians, the Suharto government passed several laws as part of the so-called "Basic Policy for the Solution of Chinese Problem", whereby only one Chinese-language publication (controlled by the Army) was allowed to continue, all Chinese cultural and religious expressions (including the display of Chinese characters) were prohibited from public space, Chinese schools were seized and turned into Indonesian-language public schools, and the ethnic-Chinese were forced to take-up Indonesian-sounding names; creating a systematic cultural genocide.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is on Java's northwestern coast.

Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities, primarily among the Chinese Indonesian.

Rioters burning office furniture on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998

May 1998 riots of Indonesia

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Rioters burning office furniture on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998
Students march to reject a special session of the MPR in November 1998.
Trisakti University students and police forces clash in May 1998
Destroyed DPR/MPR courtroom, after being occupied by students.
B. J. Habibie takes the presidential oath of office following Suharto's resignation, one week after the violence. He later appointed a fact-finding team to investigate the May riots.
According to the fact-finding team, Prabowo Subianto was a key figure in military involvement with rioters in Jakarta.
A portrait of ethnic Chinese tycoon Sudono Salim—one of the world's wealthiest men at the time—and his wife is burned by rioters when his Jakarta house was ransacked during the riots.

The May 1998 riots of Indonesia (Kerusuhan Mei 1998), also known as the 1998 tragedy (Tragedi 1998) or simply the 1998 event (Peristiwa 1998), were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest that occurred throughout Indonesia, mainly in Medan in the province of North Sumatra (4–8 May), the capital city of Jakarta (12–15 May), and Surakarta (also called Solo) in the province of Central Java (13–15 May).

The main targets of the violence were ethnic Chinese Indonesians, but most of the casualties were caused by a massive fire and occurred among looters.

West Java

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Province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung.

Province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung.

Rice fields terrace in Priangan highland, West Java, Dutch East Indies. In/before 1926.
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg (Bogor), c. 1865–1872
2nd-level Administrative map of West Java Province
View of the mount and the crater of Tangkuban Parahu, Bandung
Tea plantations in Malabar, southern Bandung. Tea plantations are common sight across mountainous West Java
Rancabali, Bandung Regency
Kawah Putih
Gamelan Degung Orchestra
SambaSunda performance in Cologne 2010
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Wayang Golek, a traditional Sundanese puppetry.
Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Sundanese degung mixed with modern instruments.
A painting depicting Nyai Loro Kidul
Cities and regencies of West Java by Human Development Index in 2020
Jagorawi Toll Road.
West hall of Bandung Institute of Technology

West Java is bordered by the province of Banten and the country's capital region of Jakarta to the west, the Java Sea to the north, the province of Central Java to the east and the Indian Ocean to the south.

The urban areas also have a significant population of Chinese Indonesians.

Banten

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Westernmost province on the island of Java, Indonesia.

Westernmost province on the island of Java, Indonesia.

Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin of Banten. Together with his father, Sunan Gunungjati, Hasanuddin founded the Sultanate of Banten
Bird's-eye view of the city of Banten, 1599.
Warriors of Banten, 1596.
François Valentijn painting of Banten, in 1694.
In 1808, Dutch Governor-General Herman Williem Daendels ordered the annexation of the Banten Sultanate. This marked the demise of the four-century-old Sultanate and the beginning of direct Dutch rule in the region for the next 150 years
Rōmusha after being freed by the Dutch. Thousands of labores died during the construction of the Saketi-Bayah railway under the Japanese
Tanjung Lesung beach, Pandegelang Regency
Mangrove forest in Ujung Kulon National Park
Sawarna Banten Green View, Lebak Regency
Rawa Danau, Lebak Regency
Administrative Map of Banten Province
Baduy people in Serang during the Seba Baduy event
Mass wedding ceremony of Benteng Chinese
Languages map of Banten
Students from a pesantren wearing Islamic dress. Most of the people in Banten are Muslims
Rampak bedug performance at event of Culinary Festival of Serang
Selection of Kang Nong Banten in 2017. The finalists wear Bantenese traditional dress.
Betawi men performing pencak silat
Bantenese men during a debus performance
The Great Mosque of Banten
Jojorong, a food originated from Pandeglang. This food is made from rice flour, brown sugar, coconut milk, and pandan leaves which served into a bowl made from banana leaves.
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang. It is the main airport of the province, as well as the main gateway to Jakarta and Indonesia
A Commuter Line in the Tangerang railway station
A public bus in Poris terminal, Tangerang
The Port of Merak serves ferries to and from Sumatra

The province borders West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta to the east, the Java Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Sunda Strait to the west, which separates Java from the neighbouring island of Sumatra.

Chinese Indonesians can also be found in urban areas, also mostly in the Greater Jakarta area.

Tangerang

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City in the province of Banten, Indonesia.

City in the province of Banten, Indonesia.

Map of Tangerang's fort dated 1709
A traditional Cina Benteng wedding ceremony.
Tangcity Mall
Soekarno–Hatta Airport Rail Link EA203 at the Batuceper railway station.
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Terminal 1
The main road in Alam Sutera

Located on the western border of Jakarta, it is the third largest urban centre in the Greater Jakarta metropolitan area after Jakarta and Bekasi; the sixth largest city proper in the nation; and the largest city in Banten province.

Tangerang has a significant community of Chinese Indonesians, many of whom are of Cina Benteng extraction.

Anti-PKI propaganda literature

Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66

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Anti-PKI propaganda literature
Major General Suharto (at right, foreground) attends a funeral for generals assassinated on 5 October 1965
A certificate of gratitude from the Regent of Sleman for financial donations to the elimination of the PKI

The Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, also known as the Indonesian genocide, Indonesian Communist Purge, or Indonesian politicide (Pembunuhan Massal Indonesia & Pembersihan G.30.S/PKI), were large-scale killings and civil unrest that occurred in Indonesia over several months, targeting Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) party members, communist sympathisers, Gerwani women, ethnic Javanese Abangan, ethnic Chinese, atheists, alleged "unbelievers" and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government, which were supported by Western NATO countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

They started in the capital, Jakarta, and spread to Central and East Java, and later Bali.

The Army General Staff at the time of the coup attempt. The generals who were killed are shown in grey.

30 September Movement

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Self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals in an abortive coup d'état, resulting in the unofficial but more accurate name of Gestok, for Gerakan Satu Oktober, or First of October Movement.

Self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals in an abortive coup d'état, resulting in the unofficial but more accurate name of Gestok, for Gerakan Satu Oktober, or First of October Movement.

The Army General Staff at the time of the coup attempt. The generals who were killed are shown in grey.
Key locations around Merdeka Square (now Monas) on 30 September 1965.
Contemporary anti-PKI literature blaming the party for the coup attempt
The editorial cartoon from the front page of the PKI newspaper "Harian Rakyat" published 2 October 1965

By the end of the day, the coup attempt had failed in Jakarta.

To weaken the regime, the Foreign Office's Information Research Department (IRD) coordinated psychological operations in concert with the British military, to spread black propaganda casting the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI), Chinese Indonesians, and Sukarno in a bad light.

A rough outline of the situation at Trisakti University during the shootings

Trisakti shootings

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A rough outline of the situation at Trisakti University during the shootings
Police confronting students at the Trisakti University on 12 May 1998
The exchange rate of the Rupiah plummeted during the 1997 Asian financial crisis
In the aftermath of the shooting, riots broke out throughout Indonesia.

The Trisakti shootings, also known as the Trisakti tragedy (Tragedi Trisakti), took place at Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia on 12 May 1998.

Public outrage against the shootings became a catalyst for the Indonesian riots of May 1998, which included a pogrom against Chinese-Indonesians.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia.

It was also difficult to apply this social categorization in classing outsiders, for example other non-indigenous Indonesians such as persons of Arab, Chinese and Indian descent.