Chinook Jargon

ChinookChinuk WawaChinook WawaCheechakoCheechakosChinook Jargon languageChinook Jargon use by English Language speakersChinook Jargon (Wawa)Chinook Jargon use by English-language speakersChinook language
Chinook Jargon (also known as Chinuk Wawa, or Chinook Wawa) is a nearly extinct American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.wikipedia
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Pidgin

pidgin languagepidginsPidgin English
Chinook Jargon (also known as Chinuk Wawa, or Chinook Wawa) is a nearly extinct American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.
The term jargon has also been used to refer to pidgins, and is found in the names of some pidgins, such as Chinook Jargon.

List of Chinook Jargon place names

List of Chinook Jargon placenamesdozens of placenamesregional toponymy
This use continued in some business sectors well into the 20th century and some of its words continue to feature in company and organization names as well as in the regional toponymy.
The following is a listing of placenames from the Chinook Jargon, generally from the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, the Canadian Yukon Territory and the American states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana.

Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon

Confederated Tribes of Grand RondeConfederated Tribes of the Grand RondeConfederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community
However, a strong revival occurred with the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon's 2012 "Chinuk Wawa" dictionary.
Because the people had lived near each other, and often spoke more than one language for use in trading, after they were grouped together in the 19th century on the reservation, they refined a creole language that became known as Chinook Jargon.

Seattle

Seattle, WashingtonSeattle, WACity of Seattle
According to Nard Jones, Chinook Jargon was still in use in Seattle until roughly the eve of World War II, especially among the members of the Arctic Club, making Seattle the last city where the language was widely used.
Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, "by and by" or "someday".

Kamloops Wawa

Chinook Writing
In the Diocese of Kamloops, British Columbia, hundreds of speakers also learned to read and write the Jargon using Duployan shorthand via the publication Kamloops Wawa.
Most of the texts of the Kamloops Wawa were composed in the local variant of Chinook Jargon with some passages and articles in Nlaka'pamuxtsin, Secwepmectsin, St'at'imcets and other traditional languages.

Duployan shorthand

DuployanDuployéDuployé Shorthand
In the Diocese of Kamloops, British Columbia, hundreds of speakers also learned to read and write the Jargon using Duployan shorthand via the publication Kamloops Wawa.
Since then, it has been expanded and adapted for writing English, German, Spanish, Romanian, and Chinook Jargon.

Joshua Green (businessman)

Joshua Green
Writing in 1972, he remarked that at that later date "Only a few can speak it fully, men of ninety or a hundred years old, like Henry Broderick, the realtor, and Joshua Green, the banker."
According to Nard Jones, Green was one of the city of Seattle's last fluent speakers of Chinook Jargon, the pidgin trade language of the Pacific Northwest.

Boston Bar, British Columbia

Boston Bar
For example: skokum hiyu in the Boston Bar-Lytton area of the Fraser Canyon, or in many areas simply just "the old trade language" or "the Hudson Bay language".
A "bar" is a gold-bearing sandbar or sandy riverbank, and the one slightly down river and opposite today's town was populated heavily by Americans, who were known in the parlance of the Chinook Jargon as "Boston men" or simply "Bostons".

Pacific Northwest

northwestNorthwest CoastPacific Northwest Coast
Chinook Jargon (also known as Chinuk Wawa, or Chinook Wawa) is a nearly extinct American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.
Chinook Jargon was a pidgin or trade language established among indigenous inhabitants of the region.

Washington (state)

WashingtonWashington StateWA
Chinook Jargon (also known as Chinuk Wawa, or Chinook Wawa) is a nearly extinct American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.

Indigenous languages of the Americas

Native American languagesindigenous languagesNative American language
The Jargon was originally constructed from a great variety of Amerindian words of the Pacific Northwest, arising as an intra-indigenous contact language in a region marked by divisive geography and intense linguistic diversity.

Jargon

term of arttechnical terminologytechnical term
There evidently was a Jargon in use in the Queen Charlotte, but this "Haida Jargon" is not known to have shared anything in common with Chinook Jargon, or with the Nooktan-Chinookan "proto-jargon" which is its main foundation.
For example, the Chinook Jargon was a pidgin.

Skookum

Skookum Houseskoocooms
Skookum is a Chinook Jargon word that has historical use in the Pacific Northwest.

Haida language

HaidaNorthern Haida languagehai
There evidently was a Jargon in use in the Queen Charlotte, but this "Haida Jargon" is not known to have shared anything in common with Chinook Jargon, or with the Nooktan-Chinookan "proto-jargon" which is its main foundation.
For this the Haida used Chinook Jargon.

Fort Vancouver

Fort Vancouver, WAFt. VancouverVancouver Barracks
There is evidence that in some communities (e.g., around Fort Vancouver) the Jargon had become creolized by the early 19th century and that would have been among the mixed French/Métis, Algonkian, Scots and Hawaiian population there as well as among the natives around the Fort.
However, trading and relations with the surrounding community were done in Chinook Jargon, a pidgin of Chinook, Nootka, Chehalis, English, French, Hawaiian and other elements.

Pacific Northwest English

Pacific NorthwestNorthwestlocal use
British Columbian English and Pacific Northwest English have several words still in current use which are loanwords from the Chinook Jargon, which was widely spoken throughout the Pacific Northwest by all ethnicities well into the middle of the 20th century.
Historically, this hearkens back to the early years of colonial expansion by the British and Americans, when the entire region was considered a single area and people of all different mother tongues and nationalities used Chinook Jargon (along with English and French) to communicate with each other.

Siwash

Siwash is a Chinook Jargon word for native peoples, derived from the French "sauvage", wild.

Quiggly hole

kekuliquiggly holeskekulis
A quiggly hole, also known as a pit-house or simply as a quiggly or kekuli, is the remains of an earth lodge built by the First Nations people of the Interior of British Columbia and the Columbia Plateau in the U.S. The word quiggly comes from kick willy or keekwulee, the Chinook Jargon word for "beneath" or "under".

Henry Tsang (artist)

Henry Tsang
An art installation featuring Chinook Jargon, "Welcome to the Land of Light" by Henry Tsang, can be viewed on the Seawall along False Creek in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia between Davie and Drake streets.
Tsang's public artwork Welcome to the Land of Light, a 100-metre long sculpture consisting of a welcome message in Chinook Jargon, is permanently installed on the northern side of False Creek, Vancouver.

Lane Community College

LaneLane CCLane Titans
In addition, Lane Community College offers two years of Chinuk Wawa language study that satisfy second-language graduation requirements of Oregon public universities.
Since 2006, the College has offered two years of Chinuk WaWa language study that satisfy second-language graduation requirements of Oregon public universities.

Potlatch

potlachceremonialsfeast
The word comes from the Chinook Jargon, meaning "to give away" or "a gift"; originally from the Nuu-chah-nulth word paɬaˑč, to make a ceremonial gift in a potlatch.

Iona Campagnolo

Honourable Iona Campagnolo
At her swearing-in as lieutenant governor in 2001, Iona Campagnolo concluded her speech in Chinook, observing that "konoway tillicums klatawa kunamokst klaska mamook okoke huloima chee illahie" - Chinook for "everyone was thrown together to make this strange new country (British Columbia)."
At her swearing-in, Campagnolo concluded her remarks in Chinook, saying, "konoway tillicums klatawa kunamokst klaska mamook okoke huloima chee illahie" - meaning: "everyone was thrown together to make this strange new country (British Columbia)."

Henry Broderick (Seattle)

Henry BroderickHenry Broderick, Inc.
Writing in 1972, he remarked that at that later date "Only a few can speak it fully, men of ninety or a hundred years old, like Henry Broderick, the realtor, and Joshua Green, the banker."
According to Nard Jones, Broderick was among the last Seattleites who could "fully" speak Chinook Jargon.

Maritime fur trade

maritime fur tradingmarine fur tradefur trade
For instance, the importance of totems and traditional nobility crests increased, and the Chinook Jargon, which remains a distinctive aspect of Pacific Northwest culture, was developed during this era.

Nootka Jargon

It was most notably in use during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and was likely a predecessor to Chinook Wawa, with a number of Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) words at the core of that pidgin language.