Chiquita Brands International

ChiquitaChiquita BananaUnited BrandsUnited Brands CompanyBocas Fruit Co.Chiquita BananasChiquita BrandsChiriqui Land Co.Miss Chiquita Banana
Chiquita Brands International Sàrl, formerly known as Chiquita Brands International Inc., is a Swiss producer and distributor of bananas and other produce.wikipedia
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United Fruit Company

United FruitInternational Railways of Central AmericaThe Great White Fleet
Chiquita is the successor to the United Fruit Company.
After a period of financial decline, United Fruit was merged with Eli M. Black's AMK in 1970, to become the United Brands Company. In 1984, Carl Lindner, Jr. transformed United Brands into the present-day Chiquita Brands International.

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
Chiquita Brands International Sàrl, formerly known as Chiquita Brands International Inc., is a Swiss producer and distributor of bananas and other produce.
Thus the banana producer and distributor Chiquita produces publicity material for the American market which says that "a plantain is not a banana".

Minor Cooper Keith

Minor C. Keith
In 1873 Central American railroad developer Minor C. Keith began to experiment with banana production in Costa Rica.
His pioneering banana interests were absorbed by the then powerful United Fruit Company, today industry dominating giant Chiquita Brands International.

Eli M. Black

Eli Black
Eli Black came in 1968 and was made chairman, president, and CEO.
He controlled the United Brands Company.

Colombia

🇨🇴COLColombian
In 1928, workers were protesting against the bad working conditions in the company plantations in Ciénaga (Colombia).
Mercenaries and multinational corporations such as Chiquita Brands International are some of the international actors that have contributed to the violence of the conflict.

Michael Gallagher (journalist)

Michael GallagherMike Gallagher
On 3 May 1998, The Cincinnati Enquirer published an eighteen-page section, "Chiquita Secrets Revealed" by investigative reporters Michael Gallagher and Cameron McWhirter.
Gallagher was formerly an investigative journalist for Gannett News Service until he was convicted of voicemail hacking in an investigation into Chiquita's business practices.

Carl Lindner Jr.

Carl LindnerCarl H. LindnerCarl H. Lindner, Jr.
It was formerly controlled by American businessman Carl H. Lindner, Jr., whose majority ownership of the company ended when Chiquita Brands International exited a prepackaged Chapter 11 bankruptcy on March 19, 2002.
Carl Lindner also had major investments in United Brands (formerly known as United Fruit - Chiquita Bananas which included plantations in El Salvador and other Central American countries.), Gulf+Western (later Paramount Communications, now part of Viacom and CBS Corporation), Warner Communications, Kroger (a major supermarket chain in the eastern U.S.), Great American Broadcasting, General Cable and Penn Central.

Fyffes

Elders and FyffesThomas FyffeElders & Fyffes
On 10 March 2014, Chiquita Brands International Inc. and Fyffes plc announced that the Boards of Directors of both companies unanimously approved a definitive agreement under which Chiquita will combine with Fyffes, in a stock-for-stock transaction that is expected to result in Chiquita shareholders owning approximately 50.7% of ChiquitaFyffes and Fyffes shareholders owning approximately 49.3% of the proposed ChiquitaFyffes, on a fully diluted basis.
In March 2014, Fyffes agreed to merge with Chiquita, to form what would have become the world's largest banana distributor.

History of modern banana plantations in the Americas

banana industrylarge scale monoculture
Their strategy was to encourage small farming of bananas rather than large scale monoculture, and to push for subsidies and other government relief to level the field for small producers.
These three factors converged in the Caribbean in the 1870s, and would lead to the development of large-scale banana plantations, usually owned and operated by highly integrated large corporations such as Dole and Chiquita Brands International.

History of peasant banana production in the Americas

small farming of bananas
Their strategy was to encourage small farming of bananas rather than large scale monoculture, and to push for subsidies and other government relief to level the field for small producers.
While the production of bananas for export is largely in the hands of large commercial companies, such as Chiquita or Dole, the Caribbean, and particularly the Windward Islands, are notable for the production of bananas by small holders for export.

Seymour Milstein

SeymourSeymour & Vivian MilsteinSeymour and Vivian Milstein
After the suicide of Black in 1975, the company was acquired by Seymour Milstein and Paul Milstein.
In 1974, the Milsteins entered the mining and energy sectors; and acquired United Brands, the parent company of Chiquita Bananas, after the suicide of its owner Eli M. Black.

The Cincinnati Enquirer

Cincinnati EnquirerEnquirerCincinnati ''Enquirer
On 3 May 1998, The Cincinnati Enquirer published an eighteen-page section, "Chiquita Secrets Revealed" by investigative reporters Michael Gallagher and Cameron McWhirter.
On May 3, 1998, the Enquirer published a special 18-page section, titled "Chiquita Secrets Revealed", that accused the Cincinnati-based fruit company of labor abuses, polluting, bribery, and other misdeeds.

Safra Group

Bank J. Safra Sarasin Limited, Guernsey BranchSafraSafra banking family
Though an intervening offer by Brazilian companies Cutrale and Safra Group of $611 million in August 2014 was rejected by Chiquita, with the company saying it would continue with its merger with Fyffes.

Lorenzo Dow Baker

Chiquita Brands International's history began in 1870 when ship's captain Lorenzo Dow Baker purchased 160 bunches of bananas in Jamaica and resold them in Jersey City eleven days later.
In 1885 he joined forces with Andrew W. Preston and eight others to form the Boston Fruit Company, which led to several successive partnerships, ending in the 1899 formation of the United Fruit Company, now Chiquita Brands International.

Covington & Burling

Covington & Burling LLPCovington and BurlingCovington, Burling, Rublee, Acheson & Shorb
In 2013 and 2014, Chiquita spent $780,000 lobbying against the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, hiring lobbyists from Covington and Burling, a high-powered white shoe law firm.
Partner Eric Holder in 2007 defended Chiquita International Brands against lawsuits brought by relatives of people slain by terrorists and paramilitia belonging to the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, which Chiquita paid for protection.

Rainforest Alliance

Rainforest Alliance CertifiedRainforest Alliance Ambassadors CircleRainforest Alliance certification
Chiquita partnered with the Rainforest Alliance, an environmental group dedicated to preserving the rainforest, and made major reforms in the way they plant and protect their bananas.
The Manchester Evening News notes that some critics have dubbed the Rainforest Alliance "Fairtrade lite", offering companies such as Chiquita and Kraft a way to tap into the ethical consumer market.

Boston Fruit Company

In 1878, Baker partnered with Andrew Preston to form the Boston Fruit Company.
In 1984, United Brands became Chiquita Brands International.

Monica Lewis

Vocalist Patti Clayton was the original 1944 voice of Miss Chiquita, followed by Elsa Miranda, June Valli and Monica Lewis.
Lewis was the longtime voice of Chiquita Banana in that company's animated ad campaign, beginning in 1947.

Banana industry

banana agricultural industrybanana crop productionbanana export and production
In 1998, a coalition of social activist groups, led by the European Banana Action Network (EUROBAN), targeted the banana industry in general and Chiquita in particular, aiming to create a new climate of corporate social responsibility.

Patti Clayton

Vocalist Patti Clayton was the original 1944 voice of Miss Chiquita, followed by Elsa Miranda, June Valli and Monica Lewis.
Clayton was the original voice of Miss Chiquita, the Chiquita banana singer.

United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia

AUCAUC paramilitary groupAutodefensas Unidas de Colombia
According to court documents, between 1997 and 2004, officers of a Chiquita subsidiary paid approximately $1.7 million to the right-wing United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), in exchange for local employee protection in Colombia's volatile banana harvesting zone.
In March 2007, the international fruit corporation, Chiquita, admitted to having paid the AUC from 1997 to 2004 US$1.7 million in order to protect its workers and operations, in Urabá and Santa Marta, of which at least US$825,000 came after the AUC was designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the US State Department in 2001.

Elsa Miranda

Vocalist Patti Clayton was the original 1944 voice of Miss Chiquita, followed by Elsa Miranda, June Valli and Monica Lewis.
Miranda first appeared on the radio performing the promotional singing commercial Chiquita Banana in 1945.

Grand Nain

Grand Nain
It is also known as the Chiquita banana, because it is the main product of Chiquita Brands International.

Seneca Foods

TreeSweet
It also sold its processed foods division to Seneca Foods that year.
Chiquita Processed Foods

Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia

paramilitary groupsparamilitaryparamilitaries
On 14 March 2007, Chiquita Brands was fined $25 million as part of a settlement with the United States Justice Department for having ties to Colombian paramilitary groups.
From 1997 to 2004, Chiquita Brands International gave over $1.7 million to the AUC, over $825,000 of which was given after the U.S. State Department had listed the AUC as a Foreign Terrorist Organization.