Chivalric romance

Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion
Holger Danske, or Ogier the Dane, from the Matter of France
A knight rescues a lady from a dragon.

Type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the noble courts of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

- Chivalric romance
Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion

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The death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux (manuscript illustration c. 1455–1460)

Paladin

The Paladins (or Twelve Peers) are twelve fictional knights of legend, the foremost members of Charlemagne's court in the 8th century.

The Paladins (or Twelve Peers) are twelve fictional knights of legend, the foremost members of Charlemagne's court in the 8th century.

The death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux (manuscript illustration c. 1455–1460)
Roland storms the temple of Muhammad (Codex Palatinus Germanicus, 12th century)
Fierabras (1497 woodcut)
Die drei Paladine des deutschen Kaisers by Wilhelm Camphausen (Die Gartenlaube, 1871)
Hans Peder Pedersen-Dan's 1907 statue of Holger Danske (Ogier the Dane) in the casemates at Kronborg castle, Denmark

In these romantic portrayals, the chivalric paladins represent Christianity against a Saracen (Muslim) invasion of Europe.

Title page of an Amadís de Gaula romance of 1533

Knight-errant

Title page of an Amadís de Gaula romance of 1533
"Yvain rescues the lion", from Garrett MS 125, an illustrated manuscript of Chrétien de Troyes' Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion, dated to ca. 1295.

A knight-errant (or knight errant ) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature.

A 14th-century Polish fresco at Siedlęcin Tower depicting Lancelot fighting the evil knight Turquine in a scene from the French Vulgate Cycle

Le Morte d'Arthur

15th-century Middle English prose reworking by Sir Thomas Malory of tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table, along with their respective folklore.

15th-century Middle English prose reworking by Sir Thomas Malory of tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table, along with their respective folklore.

A 14th-century Polish fresco at Siedlęcin Tower depicting Lancelot fighting the evil knight Turquine in a scene from the French Vulgate Cycle
A 14th-century "Round Table" at Winchester Castle, Malory's Camelot
The holy island of Mont-Saint-Michel where Arthur slays an evil giant in one of the only few supernatural elements of the Roman War story
"How Arthur by the mean of Merlin gat Excalibur his sword of the Lady of the Lake", illustration for Le Morte Darthur, J. M. Dent & Co., London (1893–1894), by Aubrey Beardsley
"How Sir Launcelot slew the knight Sir Peris de Forest Savage that did distress ladies, damosels, and gentlewomen." The Romance of King Arthur (1917), abridged from Malory's Morte d'Arthur by Alfred W. Pollard and illustrated by Arthur Rackham
"'Lady,' replied Sir Beaumains, 'a knight is little worth who may not bear with a damsel.'" Lancelot Speed's illustration for James Thomas Knowles' The Legends of King Arthur and His Knights (1912)
"The Holy Grail, covered with white silk, came into the hall." The Grail's miraculous sighting at the Round Table in William Henry Margetson's illustration for Legends of King Arthur and His Knights (1914)
Arthur's final voyage to Avalon in a 1912 illustration by Florence Harrison
Arthur being taken to Avalon in Alberto Sangorski's 1912 illustration for Tennyson's poem "Morte d'Arthur"
N. C. Wyeth's title page illustration for Sidney Lanier's The Boy's King Arthur (1917)
The two volumes of illustrated edition of Le Morte Darthur published by J. M. Dent in 1893, with vellucent binding by Cedric Chivers.

In addition to the vast Vulgate Cycle in its different variants, as well as the English poems Morte Arthur and Morte Arthure, Malory's other original source texts were identified as several French standalone chivalric romances, including Erec et Enide, L'âtre périlleux, Perlesvaus, and Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion (or its English version, Ywain and Gawain), as well as John Hardyng's English Chronicle.

This portrait attributed to Juan de Jáuregui, 
who did paint Cervantes, is unauthenticated. No authenticated image of Cervantes exists.

Miguel de Cervantes

Early Modern Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

Early Modern Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.

This portrait attributed to Juan de Jáuregui, 
who did paint Cervantes, is unauthenticated. No authenticated image of Cervantes exists.
An incident in the story of Don Quixote (1870), by Robert Hillingford.
Santa María la Mayor, in Alcalá de Henares, where Cervantes was reputedly baptised; the square in front is named Plaza Cervantes
Monument of Cervantes erected in 1929, Madrid.
Statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the harbour of Naupactus (Lepanto)
Cervantes at the battle of Lepanto, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau.
Statue of Cervantes outside the National Library of Spain.
Cervantes was buried at the Convent of the Barefoot Trinitarians in Madrid.
The windmill scene from Don Quijote, by Gustave Doré
An illustration from Don Quijote, by Doré
Cervantes's La Galatea (1585), original title page.
Frontispiece of the Viaje (1614)

In Don Quixote, he challenged a form of literature that had been a favourite for more than a century, explicitly stating his purpose was to undermine 'vain and empty' chivalric romances.

God Speed! by Edmund Blair Leighton, 1900: a late Victorian view of a lady giving a favor to a knight about to do battle

Courtly love

Medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

Medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

God Speed! by Edmund Blair Leighton, 1900: a late Victorian view of a lady giving a favor to a knight about to do battle
Court of Love in Provence in the 14th century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)
Warfare imagery: the Siege of the Castle of Love on an ivory mirror-back, possibly Paris, ca. 1350–1370 (Musée du Louvre)
Lancelot and Guinevere in Howard Pyle's illustration for The Story of the Champions of the Round Table (1905)
Courtly vignettes on an ivory mirror-case, first third of the 14th century (Musée du Louvre)

The medieval genres in which courtly love conventions can be found include the lyric, the romance and the allegory.

Tablet containing a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh

Epic poetry

Epic, is a lengthy narrative poem typically about the extraordinary deeds of extraordinary characters who, in dealings with gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the mortal universe for their descendants.

Epic, is a lengthy narrative poem typically about the extraordinary deeds of extraordinary characters who, in dealings with gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the mortal universe for their descendants.

Tablet containing a fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh
The first edition (1835) of the Finnish national epic poetry Kalevala by Elias Lönnrot

So too, Orlando Furioso is not a complete biography of Roland, but picks up from the plot of Orlando Innamorato, which in turn presupposes a knowledge of the romance and oral traditions.

A statue of Roland at Metz railway station, France.

Roland

Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France.

Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France.

A statue of Roland at Metz railway station, France.
The eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture
Composed in 1098, the first page of the Chanson de Roland (Song of Roland)
Attributed arms according to Michel Pastoureau: Échiqueté d'or et de sable

Roland appears in Entrée d'Espagne, a 14th-century Franco-Venetian chanson de geste (in which he is transformed into a knight errant, similar to heroes from the Arthurian romances) and La Spagna, a 14th-century Italian epic.

A portrait of a fairy, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson (1869). The title of the painting is Take the Fair Face of Woman, and Gently Suspending, With Butterflies, Flowers, and Jewels Attending, Thus Your Fairy is Made of Most Beautiful Things (purportedly taken from a poem by Charles Ede).

Fairy

Type of mythical being or legendary creature found in the folklore of multiple European cultures (including Celtic, Slavic, Germanic, English, and French folklore), a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.

Type of mythical being or legendary creature found in the folklore of multiple European cultures (including Celtic, Slavic, Germanic, English, and French folklore), a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.

A portrait of a fairy, by Sophie Gengembre Anderson (1869). The title of the painting is Take the Fair Face of Woman, and Gently Suspending, With Butterflies, Flowers, and Jewels Attending, Thus Your Fairy is Made of Most Beautiful Things (purportedly taken from a poem by Charles Ede).
1888 illustration by Luis Ricardo Falero of common modern depiction of a fairy with butterfly wings
Title page of a 1603 reprinting of Daemonologie
Illustration of a fairy by C. E. Brock
A resin statue of a fairy
Prince Arthur and the Faerie Queene by Johann Heinrich Füssli (c. 1788); scene from The Faerie Queene
The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania by Joseph Noel Paton (1849): fairies in Shakespeare
A fairy pictured in the coat of arms of Haljala Parish

Historical origins of fairies range from various traditions from Persian mythology to European folklore such as of Brythonic (Bretons, Welsh, Cornish), Gaelic (Irish, Scots, Manx), and Germanic peoples, and of Middle French medieval romances.

Ariosto, detail of votive painting Madonna with Saints Joseph, John, Catherine, Louis of Toulouse and Lodovico Ariosto by Vincenzo Catena, 1512

Ludovico Ariosto

Italian poet.

Italian poet.

Ariosto, detail of votive painting Madonna with Saints Joseph, John, Catherine, Louis of Toulouse and Lodovico Ariosto by Vincenzo Catena, 1512
Entrance to the villa where Ariosto was born
Memorial statue and park, Ferrara
Portrait of Isabella d'Este, Leonardo da Vinci, 1499–1500
Titian, A Man with a Quilted Sleeve, long believed to be Ludovico Ariosto
Ariosto's play, first published in verse form in 1551
Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia
Portrait of Ludovico Ariosto by Cristofano dell'Altissimo

He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso (1516).

Orlando Furioso title page, Valgrisi Edition, 1558

Orlando Furioso

Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on later culture.

Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on later culture.

Orlando Furioso title page, Valgrisi Edition, 1558
Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Gustave Doré
Title page of the third edition of John Harington's translation of Orlando Furioso, 1634. The first edition was 1591
Page from 1565 edition of Orlando Furioso by Francesco Franceschi.
Norandino and Lucina Discovered by the Ogre, from Canto XVII, by Giovanni Lanfranco, 1624
Marphise by Eugène Delacroix, 1852 (Walters Art Museum)
Orlando Furioso, 1551

The story is also a chivalric romance which stemmed from a tradition beginning in the late Middle Ages and continuing in popularity in the 16th century and well into the 17th.