Chivalric romance

Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion
Holger Danske, or Ogier the Dane, from the Matter of France
A knight rescues a lady from a dragon.

Type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the noble courts of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

- Chivalric romance
Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion

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Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries

Huon of Bordeaux

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries

Huon of Bordeaux is the title character of a 13th-century French epic poem with romance elements.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

Knight

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
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Knights and the ideals of knighthood featured largely in medieval and Renaissance literature, and have secured a permanent place in literary romance.

"Havelok presents Goldborough to the English people", a 1905 illustration by Henry Justice Ford

Havelok the Dane

"Havelok presents Goldborough to the English people", a 1905 illustration by Henry Justice Ford
Havelok's name as it appears in an early fourteenth-century manuscript.
1905 illustration showing the fisherman Grim and his wife, noticing Havelok glowing while he sleeps

Havelok the Dane, also known as Havelok or Lay of Havelok the Dane, is a thirteenth-century Middle English romance considered to be part of the Matter of England.

Title page of the first Castilian-language translation of Tirant lo Blanch, printed in Valladolid by Diego de Gumiel

Tirant lo Blanch

Title page of the first Castilian-language translation of Tirant lo Blanch, printed in Valladolid by Diego de Gumiel

Tirant lo Blanch (modern spelling: Tirant lo Blanc ) is a chivalric romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished posthumously by his friend Martí Joan de Galba and published in the city of Valencia in 1490 as an incunabulum edition.

The White Stag hunt in a medieval manuscript

Erec and Enide

The White Stag hunt in a medieval manuscript
The opening lines of the Welsh language version of Geraint and Enid (pre 1382), from the Red Book of Hergest manuscript

Erec and Enide (Érec et Énide) is the first of Chrétien de Troyes' five romance poems, completed around 1170.

The troubadour Perdigon playing his fiddle.

Matter of Rome

Literary cycle of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.

Literary cycle of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.

The troubadour Perdigon playing his fiddle.

Bodel’s division of literary cycles also included the Matter of France and the Matter of Britain (although "non-cyclical" romance also existed).

Haakon IV of Norway, as portrayed in Flateyjarbók; A key patron of chivalric sagas.

Chivalric sagas

Haakon IV of Norway, as portrayed in Flateyjarbók; A key patron of chivalric sagas.

The riddarasögur (literally 'sagas of knights', also known in English as 'chivalric sagas', 'romance-sagas', 'knights' sagas', 'sagas of chivalry') are Norse prose sagas of the romance genre.

The Sergeant of Law

The Man of Law's Tale

Fifth of the Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, written around 1387.

Fifth of the Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, written around 1387.

The Sergeant of Law
ChaucerMS42131f16r
GowerexMS42131f46v

Her tale is also told in John Gower's Confessio Amantis, and both are similar to the verse Romance Emaré, and the cycle is generally known as the "Constance" cycle.

Portrait of Gottfried von Strassburg from the Codex Manesse (Folio 364r).

Gottfried von Strassburg

Author of the Middle High German courtly romance , an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend.

Author of the Middle High German courtly romance , an adaptation of the 12th-century Tristan and Iseult legend.

Portrait of Gottfried von Strassburg from the Codex Manesse (Folio 364r).
A page from the Munich MS of Gottfried's Tristan transcription

The text of Tristan is 19,548 lines long, and is written, like all courtly romances, in rhyming couplets.

Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion

King Horn

Yvain fighting Gawain in order to regain the love of his lady Laudine. Medieval illumination from Chrétien de Troyes's romance, Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion

King Horn is a Middle English chivalric romance dating back to the middle of the thirteenth century.