Chivalry

chivalricchivalrouschivalric codeKnightly VirtuesAge of ChivalrygallantryCode of ChivalryChristian Chivalryknightknightly
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, but never decided on or summarized in a single document.wikipedia
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Knightly Piety

Knightly Piety devotionpiety
The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.
The term comes from Ritterfrömmigkeit coined by Adolf Waas in his book Geschichte der Kreuzzüge. Many scholars debate the importance of knightly piety, however it is apparent as an important part of the chivalric ethos based on its appearance within the Geoffroi de Charny's Book of Chivalry as well as much of the popular literature of the time.

Nobility

noblemannoblenobles
The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.
As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto noblesse oblige ("nobility obliges"), nobles can also carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions.

Courtly love

courtlinesslovepoetry
The meaning of the term evolved over time because in the Middle Ages the meaning of chevalier changed from the original concrete military meaning "status or fee associated with a military follower owning a war horse" or "a group of mounted knights" to the ideal of the Christian warrior ethos propagated in the romance genre, which was becoming popular during the 12th century, and the ideal of courtly love propagated in the contemporary Minnesang and related genres.
Courtly love (fin'amor ; amour courtois ) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

Knight

knighthoodknightedknights
It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes. The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de Chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin (1138–1193) the ritual of Christian knighthood; the Libre del ordre de cavayleria, written by Ramon Llull (1232–1315), from Majorca, whose subject is knighthood; and the Livre de Chevalerie of Geoffroi de Charny (1300–1356), which examines the qualities of knighthood, emphasizing prowess.
By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior.

Geoffroi de Charny

Geoffrey de CharnyGeoffroy de CharnyCharny
The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de Chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin (1138–1193) the ritual of Christian knighthood; the Libre del ordre de cavayleria, written by Ramon Llull (1232–1315), from Majorca, whose subject is knighthood; and the Livre de Chevalerie of Geoffroi de Charny (1300–1356), which examines the qualities of knighthood, emphasizing prowess.
1300 – 19 September 1356), also known as Geoffry de Charny, was a French knight and author of at least three works on chivalry.

Don Quixote

Don QuijoteDon Quixote de la ManchaDon Quijote de la Mancha
This is the mad mission of Don Quixote, protagonist of the most chivalric novel of all time and inspirer of the chivalry of Sir Walter Scott and of the U.S. South: to restore the age of chivalry, and thereby improve his country.
The plot revolves around the adventures of a noble (hidalgo) from La Mancha named Alonso Quixano, who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his mind and decides to become a knight-errant (caballero andante) to revive chivalry and serve his nation, under the name Don Quixote de la Mancha.

Chivalric romance

romanceromancescourtly romance
The meaning of the term evolved over time because in the Middle Ages the meaning of chevalier changed from the original concrete military meaning "status or fee associated with a military follower owning a war horse" or "a group of mounted knights" to the ideal of the Christian warrior ethos propagated in the romance genre, which was becoming popular during the 12th century, and the ideal of courtly love propagated in the contemporary Minnesang and related genres.
They were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures, often of a chivalric knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest.

Duel

duelingduellingduels
The chivalric ideals are based on those of the early medieval warrior class, and martial exercise and military virtue remains an integral part of chivalry until the end of the medieval period, as the reality on the battlefield changed with the development of Early Modern warfare increasingly restricted to the tournament ground and duelling culture.
Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period (19th to late 20th centuries, if not beyond) especially among military officers.

Tournament (medieval)

tournamenttournamentstourney
The chivalric ideals are based on those of the early medieval warrior class, and martial exercise and military virtue remains an integral part of chivalry until the end of the medieval period, as the reality on the battlefield changed with the development of Early Modern warfare increasingly restricted to the tournament ground and duelling culture.
A tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei), was a chivalrous competition or mock fight in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries).

Late Middle Ages

late medievallate medieval periodlate mediaeval
The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.
Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly more elaborate chivalric code of conduct for the warrior class.

Peace and Truce of God

Peace of GodTruce of GodPax Dei
The Peace and Truce of God in the 10th century was one such example, with limits placed on knights to protect and honour the weaker members of society and also help the church maintain peace.
Other strategies to deal with the problem of violence in the western half of the former Carolingian Empire include Chivalry and the Crusades.

Ramon Llull

Raymond LullRamon LullArs Magna
The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de Chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin (1138–1193) the ritual of Christian knighthood; the Libre del ordre de cavayleria, written by Ramon Llull (1232–1315), from Majorca, whose subject is knighthood; and the Livre de Chevalerie of Geoffroi de Charny (1300–1356), which examines the qualities of knighthood, emphasizing prowess.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
Chivalry and the ethos of courtly love developed in royal and noble courts.

King Arthur

ArthurianArthurArthurian legend
The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature, especially the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, the former informed by Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written in the 1130s, which popularized the legend of King Arthur.
A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals embodied in the "Arthur of romance".

William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke

William MarshalWilliam MarshallWilliam Marshal, Earl of Pembroke
The military orders of the crusades which developed in this period came to be seen as the earliest flowering of chivalry, although it remains unclear to what extent the notable knights of this period—such as Saladin, Godfrey of Bouillon, William Marshal or Bertrand du Guesclin—actually did set new standards of knightly behaviour, or to what extent they merely behaved according to existing models of conduct which came in retrospect to be interpreted along the lines of the "chivalry" ideal of the Late Middle Ages.
This would have included biblical stories and prayers written in Latin, and some exposure to French romance literature to confer precepts of chivalry upon the future knight.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Gawain and the Green KnightGreen KnightGawain and the Green Knight, a New Verse Translation
Written in stanzas of alliterative verse, each of which ends in a rhyming bob and wheel, it draws on Welsh, Irish and English stories, as well as the French chivalric tradition.

Jousting

joustjouststournament
The joust remained the primary example of knightly display of martial skill throughout the Renaissance (the last Elizabethan Accession Day tilt was held in 1602).
Tournaments in the High Medieval period were much rougher and less "gentlemanly" affairs than in the late medieval era of chivalry.

Maurice Keen

Keen, MauriceM. H. KeenM.H. Keen
The book redefined in several ways the concept of chivalry, underlining the military aspect of it.

Honour

honorhonourshonorable
The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, and courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility.

Order of chivalry

chivalric orderorders of chivalryorder of knighthood
The custom of foundation of chivalric orders by Europe's monarchs and high nobility peaked in the late medieval period, but it persisted during the Renaissance and well into the Baroque and early modern period, with e.g. the Tuscan Order of Saint Stephen (1561), the French Order of Saint Louis (1693) or the Anglo-Irish Order of St. Patrick (1783), and numerous dynastic orders of knighthood remain active in countries that retain a tradition of monarchy.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or inspired by the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099–1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.

Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard

BayardChevalier BayardChevalier de Bayard
At the present day [about 1810], we imagine we can still see chivalry flourishing in the persons of Du Guesclin and Bayard, under Charles V and Francis I. But when we come to examine either the one period or the other, although we find in each some heroic spirits, we are forced to confess that it is necessary to antedate the age of chivalry, at least three or four centuries before any period of authentic history.
As a soldier, Bayard was considered the epitome of chivalry and one of the most skillful commanders of the age.

Saladin

Salah ad-DinSaladdinSalah ad-Din (Saladin)
The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de Chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin (1138–1193) the ritual of Christian knighthood; the Libre del ordre de cavayleria, written by Ramon Llull (1232–1315), from Majorca, whose subject is knighthood; and the Livre de Chevalerie of Geoffroi de Charny (1300–1356), which examines the qualities of knighthood, emphasizing prowess. The military orders of the crusades which developed in this period came to be seen as the earliest flowering of chivalry, although it remains unclear to what extent the notable knights of this period—such as Saladin, Godfrey of Bouillon, William Marshal or Bertrand du Guesclin—actually did set new standards of knightly behaviour, or to what extent they merely behaved according to existing models of conduct which came in retrospect to be interpreted along the lines of the "chivalry" ideal of the Late Middle Ages.
Saladin eventually achieved a great reputation in Europe as a chivalrous knight, due to his fierce struggle against the crusaders and his generosity.

Thomas Malory

Sir Thomas MaloryMaloryThomas Mallory
There were many chivalric groups in England as imagined by Sir Thomas Malory when he wrote Le Morte d'Arthur in the late 15th century; perhaps each group created each chivalric ideology.
However, a biography by Edward Hicks published in 1928 revealed that Malory had been imprisoned as a thief, bandit, kidnapper, and rapist, which hardly seemed in keeping with the high chivalric standards of his book.

Christine de Pizan

Christine de PisanChristine of Pisan
In the 15th century Christine de Pizan combined themes from Vegetius, Bonet, and Frontinus in Livre des faits d'armes et de chevalerie.
In the first person narrative she and Cumaean Sibyl travel together and witness a debate on the state of the world between the four allegories – Wealth, Nobility, Chivalry and Wisdom.

Gawain

Sir GawainGwalchmaiGawaine
The Norman version by Wace, the Roman de Brut, ascribes to Gawain the chivalric aspect he would take in later literature, wherein he favours courtliness and love over martial valor.