A report on Chlamydomonas

Drawings of Chlamydomonas caudata Wille.
Cross section of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell
Light micrograph of Chlamydomonas with two flagella just visible at bottom left
Chlamydomonas globosa, again with two flagella just visible at bottom left

Genus of green algae consisting of about 150 species all unicellular flagellates, found in stagnant water and on damp soil, in freshwater, seawater, and even in snow as "snow algae".

- Chlamydomonas

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Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss

Chloroplast

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Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Type of membrane-bound organelle known as a plastid that conducts photosynthesis mostly in plant and algal cells.

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss
Euglena, a euglenophyte, contains secondary chloroplasts from green algae.
Chlorarachnion reptans is a chlorarachniophyte. Chlorarachniophytes replaced their original red algal endosymbiont with a green alga.
Scanning electron micrograph of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, a haptophyte.
The photosynthetic pigments present in their chloroplasts give diatoms a greenish-brown color.
Ceratium furca, a peridinin-containing dinophyte
Karenia brevis is a fucoxanthin-containing dynophyte responsible for algal blooms called "red tides".
Dinophysis acuminata has chloroplasts taken from a cryptophyte.
Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D-loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, Rao BJ's paper "A comparative approach to elucidate chloroplast genome replication."
Over time, base changes in the DNA sequence can arise from deamination mutations. When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A --> G base change.
Transmission electron microscope image of a chloroplast. Grana of thylakoids and their connecting lamellae are clearly visible.
Instead of an intermembrane space, glaucophyte algae have a peptidoglycan wall between their inner and outer chloroplast membranes.
Granum-stroma assembly structure The prevailing model of the granum-stroma assembly is stacks of granal thylakoids wrapped by right-handed helical stromal thylakoids which are connected to large parallel sheets of stromal thylakoids and adjacent right-handed helices by left-handed helical structures. (Based on ).
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Greater diversity in chloroplast shapes exists among the algae, which often contain a single chloroplast that can be shaped like a net (e.g., Oedogonium), a cup (e.g., Chlamydomonas), a ribbon-like spiral around the edges of the cell (e.g., Spirogyra), or slightly twisted bands at the cell edges (e.g., Sirogonium).

Chlamydomonadales

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Order of flagellated or pseudociliated green algae, specifically of the Chlorophyceae.

Order of flagellated or pseudociliated green algae, specifically of the Chlorophyceae.

Schematic representation of the phylogenetic relationships of the volvocine algae and the parallel evolution of the spheroidal colony. Volvocine algae range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox through various intermediate forms and are used as a model for research into the evolution of multicellularity. The spheroidal colony is thought to have evolved twice independently within this group: once in the Volvocaceae, from Pandorina to Volvox, and the other in the genus Astrephomene. The phylogeny is based on previous reports. All drawings and photographs represent side views of individuals with anterior ends orienting toward the top of this figure.

Each cell has two flagella, and is similar in appearance to Chlamydomonas, with the flagella throughout the colony moving in coordination.

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

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Single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella.

Single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella.

C. reinhardtii trajectory, in HSA (culture medium), under red light.

Chlamydomonas species are widely distributed worldwide in soil and fresh water.

Chlamydomonas nivalis

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Unicellular red-coloured photosynthetic green alga that is found in the snowfields of the alps and polar regions all over the world.

Unicellular red-coloured photosynthetic green alga that is found in the snowfields of the alps and polar regions all over the world.

Most habitats these algae reside in are very different from other species of the rest of the genus Chlamydomonas.

The Arabidopsis mutant (FLU), unable to control biosynthesis of protochlorophyllide, glows red in the blue light.

Protochlorophyllide

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Intermediate in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a.

Intermediate in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll a.

The Arabidopsis mutant (FLU), unable to control biosynthesis of protochlorophyllide, glows red in the blue light.

Later, by the sequence similarity, a similar protein was found in Chlamydomonas algae, showing that this regulatory subsystem existed a long time before the angiosperms lost the independent conversion enzyme.

Isogamy

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[[File:Isogamy.svg|thumb|Different forms of isogamy:

[[File:Isogamy.svg|thumb|Different forms of isogamy:

It is typical in the genera Ulva, Hydrodictyon, Tetraspora, Zygnema, Spirogyra, Ulothrix, and Chlamydomonas.