A report on ChloroplastPyrenoid and Chlamydomonas

Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss
Cross section of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae cell, a 3D representation
Euglena, a euglenophyte, contains secondary chloroplasts from green algae.
DIC image of Scenedesmus quadricauda with the pyrenoid (central four circular structures) clearly visible.
Drawings of Chlamydomonas caudata Wille.
Chlorarachnion reptans is a chlorarachniophyte. Chlorarachniophytes replaced their original red algal endosymbiont with a green alga.
Cross section of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell
Scanning electron micrograph of Gephyrocapsa oceanica, a haptophyte.
Light micrograph of Chlamydomonas with two flagella just visible at bottom left
The photosynthetic pigments present in their chloroplasts give diatoms a greenish-brown color.
Chlamydomonas globosa, again with two flagella just visible at bottom left
Ceratium furca, a peridinin-containing dinophyte
Karenia brevis is a fucoxanthin-containing dynophyte responsible for algal blooms called "red tides".
Dinophysis acuminata has chloroplasts taken from a cryptophyte.
Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D-loop mechanisms. Adapted from Krishnan NM, Rao BJ's paper "A comparative approach to elucidate chloroplast genome replication."
Over time, base changes in the DNA sequence can arise from deamination mutations. When adenine is deaminated, it becomes hypoxanthine, which can pair with cytosine. During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A --> G base change.
Transmission electron microscope image of a chloroplast. Grana of thylakoids and their connecting lamellae are clearly visible.
Instead of an intermembrane space, glaucophyte algae have a peptidoglycan wall between their inner and outer chloroplast membranes.
Granum-stroma assembly structure The prevailing model of the granum-stroma assembly is stacks of granal thylakoids wrapped by right-handed helical stromal thylakoids which are connected to large parallel sheets of stromal thylakoids and adjacent right-handed helices by left-handed helical structures. (Based on ).

Pyrenoids are sub-cellular micro-compartments found in chloroplasts of many algae, and in a single group of land plants, the hornworts.

- Pyrenoid

Chlamydomonas is used as a model organism for molecular biology, especially studies of flagellar motility and chloroplast dynamics, biogenesis, and genetics.

- Chlamydomonas

The nucleus is enclosed in a cup-shaped chloroplast, which has a single large pyrenoid where starch is formed from photosynthetic products. Pyrenoid with starch sheath is present in the posterior end of the chloroplast.

- Chlamydomonas

Some contain pyrenoids.

- Chloroplast

Greater diversity in chloroplast shapes exists among the algae, which often contain a single chloroplast that can be shaped like a net (e.g., Oedogonium), a cup (e.g., Chlamydomonas), a ribbon-like spiral around the edges of the cell (e.g., Spirogyra), or slightly twisted bands at the cell edges (e.g., Sirogonium).

- Chloroplast
Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Bryum capillare, a type of moss

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