Chloramphenicol

Chloromycetin8chloramphenicolAmphicolChloramphenicol sodium succinatechloramphenicol succinateChlorofairchloromycetineChloromyxinChloropticChloroptic-P S.O.P.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.wikipedia
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Pathogenic bacteria

bacterial infectionbacterial infectionsbacterial
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
For example, the antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracyclin inhibit the bacterial ribosome but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome, so they exhibit selective toxicity.

Gray baby syndrome

In young children a condition known as gray baby syndrome may occur which results in a swollen stomach and low blood pressure.
Gray baby syndrome (also termed Gray or Grey syndrome) is a rare but serious side effect that occurs in newborn infants (especially premature babies) following the accumulation of antibiotic chloramphenicol.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
For example, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines are antagonists to penicillins and U.S.s. However, this can vary depending on the species of bacteria.

Typhoid fever

typhoidenteric fevertyphoid pneumonia
By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever.
In epidemics and less wealthy countries, after excluding malaria, dysentery, or pneumonia, a therapeutic trial time with chloramphenicol is generally undertaken while awaiting the results of the Widal test and cultures of the blood and stool.

Plague (disease)

plagueplaguesthe plague
By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever.
The antibiotics often used are streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline.

Streptomyces venezuelae

S. venezuelae
Chloramphenicol was discovered after being isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae in 1947. Chloramphenicol was first isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae in 1947 and in 1949 a team of scientists at Parke-Davis including Mildred Rebstock published their identification of the chemical structure and their synthesis, making it the first antibiotic to be made instead of extracted from a micro-organism.
Chloramphenicol, the first antibiotic to be manufactured synthetically on a large scale, was originally derived from ''S.

Cholera

Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks out
By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever.
Other antibiotics proven to be effective include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone.

Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

Chloramphenicol O-acetyltransferaseCAT assay
High-level resistance is conferred by the cat-gene; this gene codes for an enzyme called chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, which inactivates chloramphenicol by covalently linking one or two acetyl groups, derived from acetyl-S-coenzyme A, to the hydroxyl groups on the chloramphenicol molecule.
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria.

Aplastic anemia

aplastic anaemiaaplasticacquired aplastic anemia
The most serious side effect of chloramphenicol treatment is aplastic anaemia.
Aplastic anemia is also sometimes associated with exposure to toxins such as benzene, or with the use of certain drugs, including chloramphenicol, carbamazepine, felbamate, phenytoin, quinine, and phenylbutazone.

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever.
Chloramphenicol, either alone or in combination with ampicillin, however, appears to work equally well.

Thiamphenicol

thiophenicol
Thiamphenicol, a related compound with a similar spectrum of activity, is available in Italy and China for human use, and has never been associated with aplastic anaemia.
It is the methyl-sulfonyl analogue of chloramphenicol and has a similar spectrum of activity, but is 2.5 to 5 times as potent.

Endophthalmitis

inflammation inside the eye
In the context of preventing endophthalmitis, a complication of cataract surgery, a 2017 systematic review found moderate evidence that using chloramphenicol eye drops in addition to an antibiotic injection (cefuroxime or penicillin) will likely lower the risk of endophthalmitis, compared to eye drops or antibiotic injections alone.
Also, the review showed moderate evidence that antibiotic eye drops (levofloxacin or chloramphenicol) with antibiotic injections (cefuroxime or penicillin) probably lowers the chance of endophthalmitis compared with injections or eye drops alone.

Ampicillin

PenbritinAmcillampicillin sodium
One example is the ACCoT plasmid (A=ampicillin, C=chloramphenicol, Co=co-trimoxazole, T=tetracycline), which mediates multiple drug resistance in typhoid (also called R factors).
It can be made less effective by other antibiotic, such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin, cephalosporins, and tetracyclines.

Broad-spectrum antibiotic

broad-spectrumbroad spectrumBroad spectrum antibiotic
Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that typically stops bacterial growth by stopping the production of proteins.

Glucuronic acid

glucuronateD-glucuronate D -glucuronic acid
Chloramphenicol is metabolized by the liver to chloramphenicol glucuronate (which is inactive).
Neonates are deficient in this conjugating system, making them particularly vulnerable to drugs such as chloramphenicol, which is inactivated by the addition of glucuronic acid, resulting in gray baby syndrome.

Mildred Rebstock

Chloramphenicol was first isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae in 1947 and in 1949 a team of scientists at Parke-Davis including Mildred Rebstock published their identification of the chemical structure and their synthesis, making it the first antibiotic to be made instead of extracted from a micro-organism.
She and her team were the first to fully synthesize chloromycetin, also known as chloramphenicol.

Macrolide

macrolidesmacrolide antibioticmacrolide antibiotics
Inhibition of CYP3A4 causes increased levels of, for example, calcium channel blockers, immunosuppressants, chemotherapeutic drugs, benzodiazepines, azole antifungals, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolide antibiotics, SSRIs, statins, cardiac antiarrhythmics, antivirals, anticoagulants, and PDE5 inhibitors.
The mechanism of action of macrolides is inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis, and they are thought to do this by preventing peptidyltransferase from adding the growing peptide attached to tRNA to the next amino acid (similarly to chloramphenicol ) as well as inhibiting ribosomal translation.

CYP2C19

2C19CYP2C19*2cytochrome P450 2C19
Chloramphenicol is a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in the liver.

Protein synthesis inhibitor

inhibiting protein synthesisinhibition of protein synthesisinterfering with the synthesis of proteins
Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic by inhibiting protein synthesis.

23S ribosomal RNA

23S23S rRNAlarge (23S) ribosomal RNA
It specifically binds to A2451 and A2452 residues in the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit, preventing peptide bond formation.
A well-known member of this antibiotic class, chloramphenicol, acts by inhibiting peptide bond formation, with recent 3D-structural studies showing two different binding sites depending on the species of ribosome.

CYP3A4

cytochrome P450 3A43A4cytochrome P450-3A4
Chloramphenicol is a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 in the liver.

Prodrug

pro-drugprodrugsinactive prodrug
Chloramphenicol succinate ester (an intravenous prodrug form) is readily excreted unchanged by the kidneys, more so than chloramphenicol base, and this is the major reason why levels of chloramphenicol in the blood are much lower when given intravenously than orally.

Topical medication

topicalointmenttopically
This includes use as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis.
One example of an antibiotic that may be applied topically is chloramphenicol.

Protein biosynthesis

protein synthesissynthesissynthesized
It prevents protein chain elongation by inhibiting the peptidyl transferase activity of the bacterial ribosome.
The capacity of disabling or inhibiting translation in protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics such as anisomycin, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, puromycin, etc.