A report on Chlordiazepoxide

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Sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and symptoms of withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs.

- Chlordiazepoxide
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Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

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Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955 and was made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, who soon followed with diazepam (Valium) in 1963.

Diazepam tablets (10, 5, and 2 mg)

Diazepam

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Medicine of the benzodiazepine family that acts as an anxiolytic.

Medicine of the benzodiazepine family that acts as an anxiolytic.

Diazepam tablets (10, 5, and 2 mg)
5 mg Valium Roche packaging Australia

Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, flurazepam, bromazepam, and clorazepate.

Diazepam is sometimes used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

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Cluster of signs and symptoms that emerge when a person who has been taking benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence, undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

Cluster of signs and symptoms that emerge when a person who has been taking benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence, undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

Diazepam is sometimes used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide, 5 mg capsules, are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam, it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.

Long half-life benzodiazepines like diazepam or chlordiazepoxide are preferred to minimize rebound effects and are available in low dose forms.

Anxiolytic

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Medication or other intervention that reduces anxiety.

Medication or other intervention that reduces anxiety.

chlordiazepoxide (Librium),

Ethanol

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

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Set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.

Set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.

Ethanol
Acute confusional state caused by alcohol withdrawal, also known as delirium tremens

The typical treatment of alcohol withdrawal is with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam.

Temazepam under the brand name Temtabs 10 mg tablets in Australia.

Temazepam

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Medication of the benzodiazepine class which is now generally used to treat severe or debilitating insomnia.

Medication of the benzodiazepine class which is now generally used to treat severe or debilitating insomnia.

Temazepam under the brand name Temtabs 10 mg tablets in Australia.
Generic temazepam 10 mg tablets
Prepn: S. C. Bell, (1965 to Am. Home. Prod.). See also: E. Reeder et al., and  (1967, 1968, both to Hoffmann-La Roche).
Apro temazepam
Normison (temazepam) 10 mg tablets

Gradual and careful reduction of the dosage, preferably with a long-acting benzodiazepine with long half-life active metabolites, such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam, are recommended to prevent severe withdrawal syndromes from developing.

Phenobarbital

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Medication of the barbiturate type.

Medication of the barbiturate type.

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The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and oxazepam (Serax) have largely replaced phenobarbital for detoxification.

Chlordiazepoxide/clidinium bromide

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Fixed-dose combination medication used to treat peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and gastritis.

Fixed-dose combination medication used to treat peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and gastritis.

It contains chlordiazepoxide and clidinium bromide.

MDMA (Ecstasy) pills. The Convention allows only government-approved medical and scientific uses of this and other substances.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

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United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

MDMA (Ecstasy) pills. The Convention allows only government-approved medical and scientific uses of this and other substances.
Despite its well-known presence in the rave scene, ketamine remains uncontrolled internationally due to its importance as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine.
Article 32 makes an exception for peyote and other wild psychotropic plants, to protect use in religious rituals in case such plants themselves were in the future added to Schedule I.
Psilocybin mushrooms are not controlled by the Convention, but the drugs contained in them are.
LSD and equipment used in its manufacture are subject to seizure under Article 22.
Crystal meth has emerged as a commonly abused drug, from the American and European rave scenes to East Asia.

chlordiazepoxide