A report on Chlorine

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
Liquid chlorine analysis
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
Ignaz Semmelweis
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

- Chlorine
Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine

126 related topics with Alpha

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Antoine Balard, one of the discoverers of bromine

Bromine

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Chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35.

Chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35.

Antoine Balard, one of the discoverers of bromine
Silver bromide (AgBr)
Structure of N-bromosuccinimide, a common brominating reagent in organic chemistry
Bromine addition to alkene reaction mechanism
View of salt evaporation pans on the Dead Sea, where Jordan (right) and Israel (left) produce salt and bromine
Tetrabromobisphenol A
Baltimore's Emerson Bromo-Seltzer Tower, originally part of the headquarters of Emerson Drug Company, which made Bromo-Seltzer
2-Octyl 4-bromo-3-oxobutanoate, an organobromine compound found in mammalian cerebrospinal fluid

Its properties are intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine.

Clorox brand bleach

Bleach

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Generic name for any chemical product that is used industrially or domestically to remove color from a fabric or fiber or to clean or to remove stains in a process called bleaching.

Generic name for any chemical product that is used industrially or domestically to remove color from a fabric or fiber or to clean or to remove stains in a process called bleaching.

Clorox brand bleach
Early method of bleaching cotton and linen goods on lawns

Chlorine, a powerful oxidizer, is the active agent in many household bleaches.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine

Fluorine 3D molecule

Fluorine

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Chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9.

Chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9.

Fluorine 3D molecule
Crystal structure of β-fluorine. Spheres indicate molecules that may assume any angle. Other molecules are constrained to planes.
Animation showing the crystal structure of beta-fluorine. Molecules on the faces of the unit cell have rotations constrained to a plane.
Steelmaking illustration from De re metallica
1887 drawing of Moissan's apparatus
An ampoule of uranium hexafluoride
Boiling points of hydrogen halides and chalcogenides, showing the unusually high values for hydrogen fluoride and water
Chlorine trifluoride, whose corrosive potential ignites asbestos, concrete, sand and other fire retardants
These xenon tetrafluoride crystals were photographed in 1962. The compound's synthesis, as with xenon hexafluoroplatinate, surprised many chemists.
Immiscible layers of colored water (top) and much denser perfluoroheptane (bottom) in a beaker; a goldfish and crab cannot penetrate the boundary; quarters rest at the bottom.
Chemical structure of Nafion, a fluoropolymer used in fuel cells and many other applications
Industrial fluorine cells at Preston
current transformers at a Russian railway.
Aluminium extraction depends critically on cryolite
Fluorosurfactant-treated fabrics are often hydrophobic
Topical fluoride treatment in Panama
Fluoxetine capsules
A full-body PET scan with glucose tagged with radioactive fluorine-18. The normal brain and kidneys take up enough glucose to be imaged. A malignant tumor is seen in the upper abdomen. Radioactive fluorine is seen in urine in the bladder.
The gifblaar is one of the few organofluorine-synthesizing organisms
Hydrofluoric acid burns may not be evident for a day, after which calcium treatments are less effective.
NASA projection of stratospheric ozone over North America without the Montreal Protocol
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, a key Scotchgard component until 2000
Fluorite: Pink globular mass with crystal facets
Fluorapatite: Long prism-like crystal, without luster, at an angle coming out of aggregate-like rock
Cryolite: A parallelogram-shaped outline with diatomic molecules arranged in two layers

It also has a high electron affinity, second only to chlorine, and tends to capture an electron to become isoelectronic with the noble gas neon; it has the highest electronegativity of any element.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.

Hydrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A sample of sodium hydride
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy
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It spontaneously reacts with chlorine and fluorine to form hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, respectively.

Violet iodine vapour in a flask.

Iodine

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Chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53.

Chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53.

Violet iodine vapour in a flask.
I2•PPh3 charge-transfer complexes in CH2Cl2. From left to right: (1) I2 dissolved in dichloromethane – no CT complex. (2) A few seconds after excess PPh3 was added – CT complex is forming. (3) One minute later after excess PPh3 was added, the CT complex [Ph3PI]+I− has been formed. (4) Immediately after excess I2 was added, which contains [Ph3PI]+[I3]−.
Structure of solid iodine
Iodine monochloride
Structure of iodine pentoxide
Structure of the oxidising agent 2-iodoxybenzoic acid
Testing a seed for starch with a solution of iodine
Diatrizoic acid, an iodine-containing radiocontrast agent
The thyroid system of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4
Comparison of the iodine content in urine in France (in microgramme/day), for some regions and departments (average levels of urine iodine, measured in micrograms per liter at the end of the twentieth century (1980 to 2000))

Ampère had given some of his sample to English chemist Humphry Davy (1778–1829), who experimented on the substance and noted its similarity to chlorine.

Bleach packaged for household use, with 2.6% sodium hypochlorite

Sodium hypochlorite

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Chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion (or ).

Chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion (or ).

Bleach packaged for household use, with 2.6% sodium hypochlorite

In solution, the compound is unstable and easily decomposes, liberating chlorine, which is the active principle of such products.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.

Sodium

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Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans.

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+

Ammonia

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Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

Compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

Ball-and-stick model of the diamminesilver(I) cation, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Ball-and-stick model of the tetraamminediaquacopper(II) cation, [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](2+)
Jabir ibn Hayyan
This high-pressure reactor was built in 1921 by BASF in Ludwigshafen and was re-erected on the premises of the University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
A train carrying Anhydrous Ammonia.
Liquid ammonia bottle
Household ammonia
Ammoniacal Gas Engine Streetcar in New Orleans drawn by Alfred Waud in 1871.
The X-15 aircraft used ammonia as one component fuel of its rocket engine
Anti-meth sign on tank of anhydrous ammonia, Otley, Iowa. Anhydrous ammonia is a common farm fertilizer that is also a critical ingredient in making methamphetamine. In 2005, Iowa used grant money to give out thousands of locks to prevent criminals from getting into the tanks.
The world's longest ammonia pipeline (roughly 2400 km long), running from the TogliattiAzot plant in Russia to Odessa in Ukraine
Hydrochloric acid sample releasing HCl fumes, which are reacting with ammonia fumes to produce a white smoke of ammonium chloride.
Production trend of ammonia between 1947 and 2007
Main symptoms of hyperammonemia (ammonia reaching toxic concentrations).
Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer giant planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia), Saturn (0.012% ammonia), and in the atmospheres and ices of Uranus and Neptune.

Combustion: Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air. When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish-green flame. Ignition occurs when chlorine is passed into ammonia, forming nitrogen and hydrogen chloride; if chlorine is present in excess, then the highly explosive nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) is also formed.

Sir Humphry Davy, Bt
by Thomas Phillips

Humphry Davy

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British chemist and inventor from Cornwall who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp.

British chemist and inventor from Cornwall who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp.

Sir Humphry Davy, Bt
by Thomas Phillips
James Watt in 1792 by Carl Frederik von Breda
Sir Humphry Davy's Researches chemical and philosophical: chiefly concerning nitrous oxide (1800), pp. 556 and 557 (right), outlining potential anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide in relieving pain during surgery
1802 satirical cartoon by James Gillray showing a Royal Institution lecture on pneumatics, with Davy holding the bellows and Count Rumford looking on at extreme right. Dr Thomas Garnett is the lecturer, holding the victim's nose.
Sodium metal, about 10 g, under oil
A voltaic pile
Magnesium metal crystals
Sir Humphry Davy by Thomas Lawrence
A diamond crystal in its matrix
The Davy lamp
Statue of Davy in Penzance, Cornwall, holding his safety lamp
Michael Faraday, portrait by Thomas Phillips c. 1841–1842
Davy's grave at Cimetière Plainpalais in Geneva

He is also remembered for isolating, by using electricity, several elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as for discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.