Chlorpyrifos

chlorpyriphos-methylDursban Turf
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brand names, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.wikipedia
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Dow Chemical Company

DowDow ChemicalThe Dow Chemical Company
It was introduced in 1965 by Dow Chemical Company.
It produces agricultural chemicals including the pesticide Lorsban and consumer products including Styrofoam.

Organophosphate

organophosphatesphosphate esterorganophosphate pesticide
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brand names, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.
chlorpyrifos

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

cholinesterase inhibitoranticholinesterasecholinesterase inhibitors
It acts on the nervous system of insects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.
Chlorpyrifos

Scott Pruitt

On March 29, 2017, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt denied a petition to ban chlorpyrifos.
Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide that is used to kill a number of pests on crops, animals, and in buildings.

Pesticide residue

pesticide residuespesticide contaminationresidue
Risk assessments have primarily considered acute exposure, but more recently researchers have begun to investigate the effects of chronic, low-level exposure through residue in pollen and components of bee hives.

Reference dose

acceptable daily dose
The EPA’s acceptable daily dose is 0.3 micrograms/kg/day.
As an example, consider the following determination of the RfD for the insecticide chlorpyrifos, adapted from the EPA's Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision for chlorpyrifos.

River Kennet

KennetKennet ValleyKennet Navigation
In Britain, the rivers Roding (1985), Ouse (2001), Wey (2002 & 2003), and Kennet (2013) all experienced insect, shrimp, and/or fish kills as a result of small releases of concentrated chlorpyrifos.
In July 2013 the Environment Agency investigated an insect kill which resulted when a small quantity (estimated to be two teaspoonfuls (10 millilitres)), of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide used in ant poison and available in garden centres, was flushed into the river killing the freshwater shrimp and most other arthropods on the stretch of the river between Marlborough and Hungerford.

Earthjustice

Sierra Club Legal Defense FundEarth JusticeSierra Legal Defence Fund
In contrast, Marisa Ordonia, a lawyer for Earthjustice, the organization that had conducted much of the legal work on the case, hailed the decision.
In 2017, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals rejected a suit against the EPA with the goal of banning the pesticide Chlorpyrifos.

Organophosphate poisoning

intoxicationorganophosphate toxicity
*Organophosphate poisoning
Insecticides including malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion, trichlorfon

3-Methylpyridine

Chlorpyrifos is produced via a multistep synthesis from 3-methylpyridine, eventually reacting 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol with diethylthiophosphoryl chloride.
3-Picoline is a useful precursor to agrochemicals, such as chlorpyrifos.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brand names, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.

Pest (organism)

pestpestsagricultural pest
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brand names, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
Chlorpyrifos is considered moderately hazardous to humans by the World Health Organization.

Autoimmune disease

autoimmune diseasesautoimmune disorderautoimmune
Exposure surpassing recommended levels has been linked to neurological effects, persistent developmental disorders and autoimmune disorders.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
The crops with the most use are cotton, corn, almonds and fruit trees including oranges, bananas and apples.

Almond

almondsbitter almondalmond oil
The crops with the most use are cotton, corn, almonds and fruit trees including oranges, bananas and apples.

Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
Chlorpyrifos was first registered for use in the United States in 1965 for control of foliage and soil-born insects.

Acute toxicity

acuteacute oral toxicityacute dose
Chlorpyrifos exposure may lead to acute toxicity at higher doses.

Chronic condition

chronicchronic diseasechronic diseases
Persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long-term exposure to low doses, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small doses.

Development of the human body

growthdevelopmentalhuman development
Persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long-term exposure to low doses, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small doses.

Fetus

fetalfoetusfetuses
Persistent health effects follow acute poisoning or from long-term exposure to low doses, and developmental effects appear in fetuses and children even at very small doses.

Median lethal dose

LD 50 LC 50 LD50
The oral LD50 in experimental animals is 32 to 1000 mg/kg.

Acetylcholine

cholinergicacetylcholine (ACh)ACh
Acute poisoning results mainly from interference with the acetylcholine neurotransmission pathway, leading to a range of neuromuscular symptoms.

Neurotransmission

synaptic transmissioncotransmissionneuronal activity
Acute poisoning results mainly from interference with the acetylcholine neurotransmission pathway, leading to a range of neuromuscular symptoms.

Neuromuscular junction

neuromuscularneuromuscular junctionsmotor end plate
Acute poisoning results mainly from interference with the acetylcholine neurotransmission pathway, leading to a range of neuromuscular symptoms.