A report on Conducting and Choir

Herbert von Karajan conducting in 1941
Evensong rehearsal in the quire of York Minster, showing carved choirstalls
Giuseppe Verdi conducting his opera Aida in 1881
Egyptian Alexandria Jewish choir of Rabbin Moshe Cohen at Samuel Menashe synagogue, Alexandria, Egypt
Leonard Bernstein conducting the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra in 1985
The boychoir Cantores Minores in the Helsinki Cathedral in 2013
Conductor's score and batons on a lit, extra-large conductor's music stand
Lambrook School choir in the 1960s, a typical boys' school choir of the time
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One possible layout
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Choir in front of the orchestra
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Relief, now in Athens, showing Dionysus with actresses (possibly from The Bacchae) carrying masks and drums
slow time
Church singing, Tacuinum Sanitatis Casanatensis (14th century)
A conductor, Gerald Wilson, leads a jazz big band
Luca della Robbia's Cantoria, Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence
A military conductor leads the U.S. Navy band during Memorial Day ceremonies held at Arlington National Cemetery.
Baroque cantata with one voice per part
David Baker, a music educator, composer and conductor, (far left) leads the Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra during the NEA Jazz Masters awards ceremony and concert in 2008.

Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.

- Conducting

Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with arm, hand, and facial gestures.

- Choir
Herbert von Karajan conducting in 1941

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The Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse in public performance at the Grain Hall of Toulouse

Orchestra

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Other instruments such as the piano, harpsichord, and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone as soloist instruments, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments and guitars.

Other instruments such as the piano, harpsichord, and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone as soloist instruments, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments and guitars.

The Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse in public performance at the Grain Hall of Toulouse
Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra at the 2 March 1916 American premiere of Mahler's 8th Symphony
Conducting an orchestra
Apo Hsu, using a baton, conducts the NTNU Symphony Orchestra in Taipei, Republic of China

Orchestras are usually led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms, often made easier for the musicians to see by use of a conductor's baton.

The Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the "Eroica" (four horns has since become standard); Beethoven's use of piccolo, contrabassoon, trombones, and untuned percussion — plus chorus and vocal soloists — in his finale, are his earliest suggestion that the timbral boundaries of symphony might be expanded.

The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921

Musical ensemble

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Group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.

Group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.

The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921
The Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestral is an example of a large classical musical ensemble.
Pori Worker's Society Brass Band in the 1920s in Pori, Finland
The Kneisel String Quartet, led by Franz Kneisel, is an example of chamber music. This American ensemble debuted Dvořák's American Quartet, opus 96
an Iranian musical ensemble in 1886
London Symphony Orchestra, Barbican Hall
A concert band.
Suzi Quatro is a singer, bassist and bandleader. When she launched her career in 1973, she was one of the few prominent women instrumentalists and bandleaders in rock music

Other music ensembles consist solely of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups.

In classical music, orchestras, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor.

Marco Ricci's "Prove per un'opera" ("Rehearsal of an Opera") depicts Pyrrhus and Demetrius being rehearsed at the Haymarket Theatre in 1709.

Rehearsal

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Activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre, dance and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production.

Activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre, dance and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production.

Marco Ricci's "Prove per un'opera" ("Rehearsal of an Opera") depicts Pyrrhus and Demetrius being rehearsed at the Haymarket Theatre in 1709.
Russian Ground Forces Guards during a dress rehearsal for a military parade in Alabino, Moscow Oblast.
Laura Liguori playing Lilya Brik during a production rehearsal of Mayakovsky and Stalin.
Jack Benny at a rehearsal with members of the California Junior Symphony Orchestra, 1959
Steamcog band members at a rehearsal in September 2019.

On the other end of the spectrum, a rehearsal can be held for a very large orchestra with over 100 performers and a choir.

Almost all mid- to large-group performances have a person who leads the rehearsals; this person may be a bandleader in a rock, country, or jazz setting; conductor in classical music (including opera); director in theatre or musical theatre; or film director for movies.

Hymn-style arrangement of "Adeste Fideles" in standard two-staff format (bass staff and treble staff) for mixed voices[[File:Adeste Fideles sheet music sample.mid]]

Sheet music

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Handwritten or printed form of musical notation that uses musical symbols to indicate the pitches, rhythms, or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.

Handwritten or printed form of musical notation that uses musical symbols to indicate the pitches, rhythms, or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.

Hymn-style arrangement of "Adeste Fideles" in standard two-staff format (bass staff and treble staff) for mixed voices[[File:Adeste Fideles sheet music sample.mid]]
Tibetan musical score from the 19th century
Title page for the first-edition vocal score for Hector Berlioz's Béatrice et Bénédict
Page from the autograph score of Fugue No. 17 in A major from J. S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier
Sheet music for the song "Oregon, My Oregon"
A conductor's score and baton
First page of the full score for Max Reger's Der 100. Psalm for choir, orchestra and organ
An excerpt of a piano-vocal score for César Cui's opera William Ratcliff.
The lead sheet for the song "Trifle in Pyjamas" shows only the melody and chord symbols. To play this song, a jazz band's rhythm section musicians would improvise chord voicings and a bassline using the chord symbols. The lead instruments, such as sax or trumpet, would improvise ornaments to make the melody more interesting, and then improvise a solo part.
The original stone at Delphi containing the second of the two Delphic Hymns to Apollo. The music notation is the line of occasional symbols above the main, uninterrupted line of Greek lettering.
Frontispiece to Petrucci's Odhecaton
Example of 16th century sheet music and music notation. Excerpt from the manuscript "Muziek voor 4 korige diatonische cister".
Buildings of New York City's Tin Pan Alley music publishing district in 1910.

Classical musicians playing orchestral works, chamber music, sonatas and singing choral works ordinarily have the sheet music in front of them on a music stand when performing (or held in front of them in a music folder, in the case of a choir), with the exception of solo instrumental performances of solo pieces, concertos, or solo vocal pieces (art song, opera arias, etc.), where memorization is expected.

It is large enough for a conductor to be able to read while directing orchestra or opera rehearsals and performances.

On these organ stops, some of the knobs have numbers indicating the length in feet of the longest (the lowest note) organ pipe of the stop

Glossary of music terminology

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A variety of musical terms are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.

A variety of musical terms are likely to be encountered in printed scores, music reviews, and program notes.

On these organ stops, some of the knobs have numbers indicating the length in feet of the longest (the lowest note) organ pipe of the stop

: A slang term for fermata, which instructs the performer to hold a note or chord as long as they wish or following cues from a conductor

vocal score or piano-vocal score : A music score of an opera, musical, or a vocal or choral composition with orchestra (like oratorio or cantata) where the vocal parts are written out in full but the accompaniment is reduced to two staves and adapted for playing on piano