Chola dynasty

CholaCholasChola EmpireChola Empire (Tamil Nadu)Chola KingdomChola periodChola kingsCholanCholas of TanjoreChozha
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history.wikipedia
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Tamils

TamilTamil peopleTamilian
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history.
From the 4th century BC onwards, urbanisation and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil political states, the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance.

Chera dynasty

CheraCherasChera Kingdom
As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.
Together with the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were known as one of the three major powers (muventar) of ancient Tamilakam (a macro region in south India ) in the early centuries of the Common Era.

Rajaraja I

Raja Raja Chola IRajaraja Chola IRajaraja Chola
Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.
Rajaraja I, born Arunmozhi Varman (also transliterated as Raja Raja Cholan), was a Chola emperor from present day south India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of medieval Tamil Nadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two thirds of Sri Lankan territory, Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE.

Three Crowned Kings

Tamil Triumviratethe three crowned rulers (the mu-ventar)three crowned
As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.
The Three Crowned rulers, or the Three Glorified by Heaven, or World of the Three, primarily known as Moovendhar, refers to the triumvirate of Chera, Chola and Pandya who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country, Tamilakam, from their three Nadu (countries) of Chola Nadu, Pandya Nadu (present day Madurai and Tirunelveli) and Chera Nadu (present day Karur in Tamil Nadu and Kerala) in southern India.

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra CholaRajendra IChola empire
Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by naval raids on cities of the city-state of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor of South India (Present day Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradesh, Kerala, Part of Karnataka and Telangana) who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE.

Kulottunga I

Kulothunga Chola IKulottunga Chola IKulothunga I
Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.
1070 – 1122 AD)) was an 11th-century monarch of the Chola Empire of South India.

Rajadhiraja Chola

Rajadhiraja Chola IRajadhirajaJayamkonda Chola Mandalam
Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.
Kōpparakēsarivarman Rājādhiraja Chōla I was an emperor of the Indian Chola empire and the successor of his father, Rajendra Chola I.

Virarajendra Chola

Veera CholaVirarajendraVirarajendra I
Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successors Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhiraja Chola, Virarajendra Chola, and Kulothunga Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.
Virarajendra Chola (r.1063–1070 CE) is considered to be one of the most underrated Chola kings, mainly because a major part of his life was spent as a subordinate of his two elder brothers Rajadhiraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola II, who along with Virarajendra Chola himself were the illustrious sons of their Chakravarti(Emperor) father, Rajendra Chola I.

Medieval Cholas

Medieval CholaMedievalCholas
Despite these ancient origins, the period when it is appropriate to speak of a "Chola Empire" only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.
Medieval Cholas and Chalukyas were continuously in conflict over the control of Vengi and the conflict eventually exhausted both the empires and led to their decline.

Tamilakam

ancient Tamil countryTamil countryTamilakkam
As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.
The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas.

Chola invasion of Srivijaya

invasion of Srivijayalaunched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya1025 invasion of Srivijaya
The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by naval raids on cities of the city-state of Srivijaya, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.
In 1025, Rajendra Chola I, the Chola king from Tamil Nadu in South India, launched naval raids on the city-state of Srivijaya in maritime Southeast Asia, and conquered Kadaram (modern Kedah) from Srivijaya and occupied it for some time.

Pandya dynasty

PandyaPandyasPandyan
As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.
The Pandya Dynasty, also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India, one of the three ethnically Tamil lineages, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.

South India

Southern IndiaSouth IndianPeninsular India
Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of which is now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara.

Chola government

government
They pioneered a centralized form of government and established a disciplined bureaucracy.
Cholas were the first dynasty who tried to bring the entire South India under a common rule and to a great extent succeeded in their efforts.

Tamil literature in the Chola Empire

Chola literatureTamil literature
Their patronage of Tamil literature and their zeal in the building of temples has resulted in some great works of Tamil literature and architecture.
Chola literature, written in Tamil, is the literature created during the period of Chola reign in South India between the 9th and the 13th centuries CE.

Andhra Pradesh

AndhraAPAndhra Pradesh State
During the period 1010–1153, the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.
The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C.E., eventually merged with the Chola Empire.

Later Cholas

Chalukya CholasLater CholaChalukya Chola
848), the dynasty of Vijayalaya, and finally the Later Chola dynasty of Kulothunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century.
The Later Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in 1279 C. E. This dynasty was the product of decades of alliances based on marriages between the Cholas and the Eastern Chalukyas based in Vengi and produced some of the greatest Chola emperors such as Kulothunga Chola I (1070–1120 C. E.).

Karikala

Karikala CholaKarikalanIlanCetCenni
Two names are prominent among those Chola kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan.
Karikala was a Tamil Chola king who ruled southern India.

Tiruchirappalli

TrichyTiruchirapalliTrichinopoly
Urayur (now a part of Thiruchirapalli) was their oldest capital.
Tiruchirappalli's recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas.

Ellalan

ElaraKing ElaraManu Needhi Cholan
The Mahavamsa mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer, a Chola prince known as Ellalan, invaded the island Sri Lanka and conquered it around 235 BCE with the help of a Mysore army.
Ellalan was a member of the Tamil Chola dynasty, also known as "Manu Needhi Cholan", who upon capturing the throne became king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in present-day Sri Lanka, from 205 BCE to 161 BCE.

Nalankilli

Nalam Killi
This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times.
Nalankilli was one of the Tamil kings of Early Cholas of the Chola Dynasty mentioned in Sangam Literature.

Sangam period

SangamSangam ageSangam era
Mentions in the early Sangam literature (c.
The period between 600 BCE to 300 CE, Tamilakam was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties of Pandya, Chola and Chera, and a few independent chieftains, the Velir.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Rajaraja Chola conquered peninsular South India, annexed parts of which is now Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of the Maldives.
The next invasion came immediately in 205 BC by a Chola named Elara, who overthrew Asela and ruled the country for 44 years.

Early Cholas

Early CholaCholaCholas
The history of the Cholas falls into four periods: the Early Cholas of the Sangam literature, the interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c.
Along with Pandyas and Cheras, Chola history goes back to the period where written records were scarce.

Pallava dynasty

PallavaPallavasPallava Kingdom
300) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominated the Tamil country.
Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and Pallava were finally defeated by the Chola Aditya I in the 9th century CE.