A report on Chola dynasty

Map showing the greatest extent of the Chola empire c. 1030 under Rajendra Chola I: territories are shown in blue, subordinates and areas of influence are shown in pink.
South India in BC 300, showing the Chera, Pandya and Chola countries
An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the tiger emblem of the Chola and in Nagari script.
Detail of the statue of Rajaraja I at Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur.
Gopuram Corner View of Thanjavur Brihadisvara Temple.
The sikhara of Brihadisvara Temple, a cupolic dome (25 tons), is octagonal and rests on a single block of granite, weighing 80 tons.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kadaram (Kedah).
Reconstruction of the hull of a Chola ship (200—848 CE), built by the ASI and based upon a wreck discovered 19 miles off the coast of Poombuhar. Model currently displayed in a Museum in Tirunelveli.
Airavateswara temple, Darasuram in Thanjavur District.
Later Chola Kingdom under Kulothunga Chola I (1070–1120 C.E)
Portrait of Rajaraja I and his guru Karuvurar at Brihadeeswarar Temple.
The mandalams of the Chola Empire, early 12th century CE
Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple.
With heavily ornamented pillars accurate in detail and richly sculpted walls, the Airavateswara temple at Darasuram is a classic example of Chola art and architecture.
Chola bronze from the Ulster Museum
Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City
Standing Hanuman, Chola Dynasty, 11th century.

Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in world history.

- Chola dynasty

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Pandya dynasty

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Pandyan Empire at greatest extent.
Mangulam inscription (3rd and 2nd centuries BCE)
Pandyan Empire at greatest extent.
Vaigai River in Madurai
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Vettuvan Koil, Kalugumalai, Tuticorin. Pandya kingdom, 8th century CE
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Kalugumalai Jain beds, Pandya kingdom, king Jatila Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (8th century CE)
Pandya country in the Chola Empire (12th century)
An aerial view of Madurai city from Meenakshi Temple
Jatavarman Vira II's fish insignia at Koneswaram temple in Trincomalee (Eastern Province).
Silk Road map showing ancient trade routes.
The gopura of Nellaiappar Temple
One of the early coins of the Pandyas showing their emblem of the Two Fishes.
God Vishnu, goddess Meenakshi and god Shiva (Meenakshi Temple, Madurai).
Meenakshi Temple, Madurai.
Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram.

The Pandya dynasty, also referred to as the Pandyas of Madurai, was an ancient dynasty of South India, and among the three great kingdoms of Tamilakam, the other two being the Cholas and the Cheras.

A Mural of Rajaraja I with his guru Karuvurar at Brihadisvara Temple.

Rajaraja I

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A Mural of Rajaraja I with his guru Karuvurar at Brihadisvara Temple.
Chola empire during the reign of Rajaraja I
Coinage of Chola King Rajaraja I (985-1014 CE). Uncertain Tamilnadu mint. Legend "Chola, conqueror of the Gangas" in Tamil, seated tiger with two fish.
Statue of Rajaraja, Tamil Nadu, 20th century
Mural depicting Rajaraja and his guru Karuvuruvar found in the Brihadisvara temple, Tamil Nadu, 11th century.
Brihadisvara Temple built by Rajaraja I, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
A typical lithic inscription of the Chola period

Rajaraja I (947 CE – 1014 CE), born Arulmozhi Varman and often described as Raja Raja the Great, was a Chola emperor who reigned from 985 CE to 1014 CE.

Tamil Nadu

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Tamil Nadu (, abbr.

Tamil Nadu (, abbr.

Keeladi, a Sangam Era Excavation Site, Sangam period
The Chola Empire at its greatest extent, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I in 1030
Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal at Madurai
Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish
Thiruvilliputhur Andal Temple Gopuram has been adopted as the official Seal of Tamil Nadu.
Topographic map of Tamil Nadu
Western Ghats traverse along the western border of Tamil Nadu
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve has the largest elephant population in India.
Madras High Court, Chennai
Districts of Tamil Nadu
Fort St. George hosts the Chief Secretariat of the government of Tamil Nadu.
Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni is a popular Christian pilgrimage site.
Asia's first Genderqueer Pride parade in Madurai with Anjali Gopalan and Gopi Shankar Madurai (2012)
Children in an elementary school in Mayiladuthurai
Agricultural farm in Nagapattinam
Agriculture forms a major portion of the state's economy.
Kanchipuram hand loom silk sarees
TIDEL Park Coimbatore; Coimbatore is one of the leading IT/ITS centers in India.
A view of the NH 544 expressway between Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu
Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Ramachandran Central Railway Station, one of India's major railway stations
Chennai International Airport, one of India's major international airports.
V.O. Chidambaranar Port Authority in Thoothukudi, one of India's major seaports
Wind farm in Muppandal and Aralvaimozhi region near Nagercoil
Kamuthi Solar Power Project
Seventh century paintings in the Sittanavasal Cave, Pudukottai
Jallikattu – A traditional sport conducted as a part of Pongal celebrations
Man riding an elephant in a Pongal Festival Parade in Namakkal
M. S. Subbulakshmi was the first musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.
M. G. Ramachandran, was the first actor turned chief minister in India. He has been awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.
Nilgiri Mountain Railway has been described as an essential experience of the Western Ghats.
Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in Thanjavur district by Karikala Chola around the 2nd century CE<ref>{{cite news |title=Flowing waters for fertile fields |url=http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/kids/article2408778.ece |newspaper=The Hindu |date=29 August 2011 |location=India |first=M. |last=Balaganessin |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120717220026/http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/kids/article2408778.ece |archive-date=17 July 2012 |url-status=dead}}</ref><ref name="kallanai_googlebook">{{cite book |last=Singh |first=Vijay P. |author2=Ram Narayan Yadava |title=Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment |publisher=Allied Publishers |year=2003 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Bge-0XX6ip8C&q=kallanai&pg=PA508 |isbn=978-81-7764-548-4 |page=508}}</ref><ref name="kallanai_oldest">{{cite web |url=http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/traditionwater.pdf |title=This is the oldest stone water-diversion or water-regulator structure in the world |access-date=27 May 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070206130842/http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/traditionwater.pdf |archive-date=6 February 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021884/Cauvery-River |title=Cauvery River – Britannica Online Encyclopedia |encyclopedia=Britannica.com |access-date=23 September 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080726171728/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021884/Cauvery-River |archive-date=26 July 2008 |url-status=live}}</ref>
Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram during the 8th century, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Vettuvan Koil, the unfinished temple is believed to have been built during the 8th century by Pandyas in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district.
The granite gopuram (tower) of Brihadisvara Temple, 1010 CE
Airavatesvara Temple built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE
The pyramidal structure above the sanctum at Brihadisvara Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Brihadisvara Temple Entrance Gopurams at Thanjavur
Ravichandran Ashwin – Cricket
Dinesh Karthik – Cricket
Adam Sinclair – Field hockey
Viswanathan Anand – Chess
P. V. Nandhidhaa – Chess Woman Grandmaster
Ramkumar Ramanathan – Tennis
Raj Bharath – Motorsport
Mariyappan Thangavelu (left most) – High jump
Mahesh Bhupathi – Tennis
alt=Ajay Jayram|Ajay Jayaram – Badminton
alt=Sharath Kamal|Sharath Kamal (left) – Table tennis
alt=Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal|Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal – Squash

The region containing Tamil Nadu was ruled by several regimes, including the Sangam era rulers of the Chera, Chola and Pandya clans, the Pallava dynasty, and the later Vijayanagara Empire, all of which shaped the state's cuisine, culture, and architecture.

Sculpture of Lord Chandikeswara (Ariyalur District)

Rajendra Chola I

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Sculpture of Lord Chandikeswara (Ariyalur District)
Deception of Shiva and Parvati crowing Rajendra.
Rajendra Chola in Battle, Kolaramma Temple, Kolar
The Koneswaram temple in Trincomalee was expanded by Rajendra.
Gangaikonda Cholapuram was built by Rajendra Chola to celebrate his success in the Ganges Expedition
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah.
Stone sculpture with Tamil Inscription, Chokkanathaswamy temple, Bengaluru built in 10th century AD
Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram was modeled after the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur.
Tamil Inscription at Chokkanathaswamy temple
Sculptures of Shiva and Parvati at Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Seal of Rajendra I
Entrance of Gangaikonda cholapuram Temple
A model of a Chola Ship
Ruins of Rajendra's Palace
Bhaktavatsala temple
Pathirakali Amman Temple
Rajendra Chola's Territories c. 1030 CE
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Rajendra Praying to a Shiva Lingam
Inscriptions dating to Rajendra's 18th regional year (c.1032 CE). Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India
alt=|Sculptures at Gangaikonda Cholapuram

Rajendra Chola I (Tamil: ராஜேந்திர சோழன்; Classical Sanskrit: Rājēndradēva Cōla; Old Malay: Raja Chulan; c. 971 CE – 1044 CE), often referred to as Rajendra the Great, and also known as Gangaikonda Chola (Middle Tamil: Kaṅkaikoṇṭa Cōḻaṉ; ), was a Chola Emperor who reigned between 1014 and 1044 CE.

Sculpture of Kulottunga I at Nataraja Temple.

Kulottunga I

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Chalukya Chola Emperor who reigned from 1070 CE to 1122 CE succeeding his cousin Athirajindra.

Chalukya Chola Emperor who reigned from 1070 CE to 1122 CE succeeding his cousin Athirajindra.

Sculpture of Kulottunga I at Nataraja Temple.
Mural by Kulottunga I depicting the story fo Shiva and Parvati.
Kudala sangama, the site of many a battle between the Cholas and Chalukyas during the period of Virarajendra Chola
Podiyil Mountains (conquered by Kulottunga around 1077-81 AD)
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Srivijaya empire around 8th century
Ruins of the ancient city of Gangaikonda Cholapuram
An Inscription preposing the name of Visakhapatnam to be changed to "Kulothunga Cholapatnam."
Melakadambur-Karakkoil
Nataraja Temple in Chidambaram

His mother, Ammangaidevi, was a Chola princess and the daughter of emperor Rajendra I.

Tamils

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The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar (தமிழர், in the singular or தமிழர்கள், in the plural), or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry mainly to India’s southern state of Tamil Nadu, union territory of Puducherry and to Sri Lanka.

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar (தமிழர், in the singular or தமிழர்கள், in the plural), or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group who trace their ancestry mainly to India’s southern state of Tamil Nadu, union territory of Puducherry and to Sri Lanka.

Grey pottery with engravings, Arikamedu, 1st century CE
The Varaha cave bas relief at Mahabalipuram from 7th century CE
Tiruvannamalai city and Annamalaiyar temple, Tamil architecture and culture influenced much of Southeast Asia between the 8th to 13th century CE.
The Tamil Chola Empire at its height, 1030 CE
Megalithic burial urns or jar found in Pomparippu, North Western, Sri Lanka dated to at least five to two centuries before the Common Era. These are similar to Megalithic burial jars found in South India and the Deccan during a similar time frame.
Ma. Po. Si and Rajaji in center, convention of the Mylai Tamil Sangam, early 1900s
Tamil girls dressed in traditional attire, ca. 1870, Tamil Nadu, India.
Distribution of Tamil speakers in South India and Sri Lanka (1961)
Tamil woman in traditional attire, c. 1880, Sri Lanka.
Batu Caves temple built by Tamil Malaysians in c. undefined 1880s
Sage Agathiyar, one of the contributors of old Tamil literature
Meenakshi Amman temple, dedicated to Goddess Meenakshi, tutelary deity of Madurai city
Erwadi durgah in Ramanathapuram district is a major pilgrimage shrine of the Tamil Muslims.
The Om symbol in Tamil script
Aiyanar, guardian folk deity of Tamil Nadu
Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni, Tamil Nadu
Katar, Tamil dagger which was popular throughout South Asia
Dancing Siva or Nataraja, example of Chola Empire bronze
The Brihadeshswara Temple at Thanjavur, also known as the Great Temple, built by Rajaraja Chola I
Bharatanatyam dancers
Megalithic sarcophagus burial from Tamil Nadu
Virampatnam jewelry from funerary burial, 2nd century BCE, Tamil Nadu
Souttoukeny jewelry, 2nd century BCE, Tamil Nadu
Map of ancient oceanic trade, and ports of Tamilakam
Tamiḻakam during Sangam Period

From the 4th century BCE, urbanisation and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil empires, the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance.

Chera dynasty

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One of the principal lineages in and before the Sangam period history of the state of Kerala and the Kongu Nadu region of Western Tamil Nadu in southern India.

One of the principal lineages in and before the Sangam period history of the state of Kerala and the Kongu Nadu region of Western Tamil Nadu in southern India.

Silk Road (Red) and Spice Routes (Blues)
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)
Tamil Brahmi inscription from Pugalur, near Karur
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A Chera coin with legend "Kuttuvan Kotai"
Chera bow and arrow insignia in Sangam era copper coin, Amaravati River, Karur
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Chera Perumal Kingdom with the Chola Empire on the east.
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Depiction of Cherman Perumal Nayanar - Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur

Together with the Cholas of Uraiyur (Tiruchirappalli) and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were known as one of the three major powers (muventar) of ancient Tamilakam in the early centuries of the Common Era.

Sri Lanka

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Island country in South Asia.

Island country in South Asia.

Ptolemy's world map of Ceylon, first century CE, in a 1535 publication
The Avukana Buddha statue, a 12 m standing Buddha statue from the reign of Dhatusena of Anuradhapura, 5th century
The Sigiriya ("Lion Rock"), a rock fortress and city, built by King Kashyapa (477–495 CE) as a new more defensible capital. It was also used as a Buddhist monastery after the capital was moved back to Anuradhapura.
The seated image of Gal Vihara in Polonnaruwa, 12th century, which depicts the dhyana mudra, shows signs of Mahayana influence.
A 17th-century engraving of Dutch explorer Joris van Spilbergen meeting with King Vimaladharmasuriya in 1602
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy, the last ruling native Sri Lankan monarch
British appointed Kandyan chief headmen in 1905.
The formal ceremony marking the start of self-rule, with the opening of the first parliament at Independence Square
Topographic map of Sri Lanka
A view of Sripada from Maskeliya
Sri Lanka map of Köppen climate classification
The Sri Lankan elephant is one of three recognised subspecies of the Asian elephant. The 2011 elephant census estimated a population of 5,879.
The Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) is an endangered subspecies of leopard native to Sri Lanka.
Maha rath mala (Rhododendron arboreum ssp. zeylanicum) is a rare sub-species of Rhododendron arboreum found in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka.
The old Sri Lankan Parliament building, near the Galle Face Green. It now serves as the Presidential Secretariat's headquarters.
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Colombo
President J. R. Jayewardene gifting a baby elephant to US President Ronald Reagan in 1984
Development of real GDP per capita, 1820 to 2018
A proportional representation of Sri Lanka exports, 2019
The Colombo World Trade Center in Colombo. Presidential Secretariat, Bank of Ceylon and Galadhari Hotel are also visible in the image.
Sri Lanka's most widely known export, Ceylon tea, which ISO considers the cleanest tea in the world in terms of pesticide residues. Sri Lanka is also the world's 2nd largest exporter of tea.
Sri Lanka's population, (1871–2001)
Development of life expectancy
The Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology is a research institute specialising in the field of nanotechnology.
Hindu devotees engaging in Kavadi at a temple in Vavuniya
Sri Lankan rice and curry
Female dancers in traditional Kandyan dress
The Nelum Pokuna Mahinda Rajapaksa Theatre was constructed as a major venue for the performing arts
A Low Country drummer playing the traditional Yak Béra
R. Premadasa Stadium in Colombo.
A 1595 map of Sri Lanka created by Dutch cartographer Petrus Plancius

The next invasion came immediately in 205 BCE by a Chola named Elara, who overthrew Asela and ruled the country for 44 years.

Thanjavur

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City in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

City in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Map of Thanjavur city in 1955
Thanjavur in 1869
Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
Thanjavur Royal Palace courtyard
Figure depicting a Tanjore painting
Bharathanatyam, the South Indian dance form in display in Brihadeeswarar Temple
A modern statue of Rajaraja Chola I, Thanjavur
Thanjavur "thalayatti bommai" stall
Paddy field in Thanjavur District
NH 67 in Thanjavur City
Thanjavur Junction railway station
Thanjavur Medical College

The city first rose to prominence during the reign of the Cholas when it served as the capital of the empire.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

Srivijaya

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Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

Attracted to the wealth of Srivijaya, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Tamil Nadu in South India, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya in 1025.