acalculous cholecystitisacute cholecystitisinflammation of the gall bladderinflammation of the gallbladderacute gall bladder inflammationAn inflamed gallbladdercalculous cholecystitisCholescystitisgall bladdergallbladder attack
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.wikipedia
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gall bladdergall-bladderHartmann's pouch
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.
Cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder, has a wide range of causes, including result from the impaction of gallstones, infection, and autoimmune disease.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Symptoms include right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and occasionally fever.


gallstonescholelithiasisgall stones
More than 90% of the time acute cholecystitis is from blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone.
Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis).

Ascending cholangitis

cholangitisacute cholangitisbiliary sepsis
Complications of acute cholecystitis include gallstone pancreatitis, common bile duct stones, or inflammation of the common bile duct.
Ultrasound can help distinguish between cholangitis and cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), which has similar symptoms to cholangitis but appears differently on ultrasound.

Biliary colic

colickybiliary disordersgallbladder attacks
Often gallbladder attacks (biliary colic) precede acute cholecystitis.
About 15% of people with biliary colic eventually develop inflammation of the gallbladder if not treated.

Murphy's sign

Murphy signMurphy’s testparticularly when pressed
Pain with deep inspiration leading to termination of the breath while pressing on the right upper quadrant of the abdomen usually causes pain (Murphy's sign).
Typically, it is positive in cholecystitis, but negative in choledocholithiasis, pyelonephritis, and ascending cholangitis.


Rokitansky-Aschoff sinusesRokitansky–Aschoff sinuses
Rokitansky–Aschoff sinuses are not of themselves considered abnormal but they can be associated with cholecystitis.


pelvic peritonitisacute peritonitiscomplication
Rupture is a rare but serious complication that leads to abscess formation or peritonitis.

Boas' sign

Boas's sign
Boas's sign which is pain in the area below the right scapula, can be a symptom of acute cholecystitis.
Boas' or Boas's sign is hyperaesthesia (increased or altered sensitivity) below the right scapula can be a symptom in acute cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder).

Xanthogranulomatous inflammation

Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare form of chronic cholecystitis which mimics gallbladder cancer although it is not cancerous.
The xanthogranulomatous type of inflammation is most-commonly seen in pyelonephritis and cholecystitis, although it has more recently been described in an array of other locations including bronchi, lung, endometrium, vagina, fallopian tubes, ovary, testis, epydidymis, stomach, colon, ileum, pancreas, bone, lymph nodes, bladder, adrenal gland, abdomen and muscle.

Quadrants and regions of abdomen

right upper quadrantleft lower quadrantright lower quadrant
Symptoms include right upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and occasionally fever.
The RUQ may be painful or tender in hepatitis, cholecystitis, and peptic ulcer.


HIDA scanhepatic iminodiacetic acidhepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid
Given its higher sensitivity, hepatic iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan can be used if ultrasound is not diagnostic.
If the gallbladder is not visualized within 4 hours after the injection, this indicates either cholecystitis or cystic duct obstruction, such as by cholelithiasis (gallstone formation).


cholecystotomycholecystectomieslaparoscopic cholecystectomy
Treatment is usually with laparoscopic gallbladder removal, within 24 hours if possible.
Cholecystitis, or inflammation of the gallbladder caused by interruption in the normal flow of bile, is another reason for cholecystectomy.


Untreated cholecystitis can lead to worsened inflammation and infected bile that can lead to a collection of pus surrounding the gallbladder, also known as empyema.
A blockage of the gallbladder or cystic duct may cause cholecystitis.

Sonographic Murphy sign

sonographic Murphy's sign
Ultrasound findings suggestive of acute cholecystitis include gallstones, pericholecystic fluid (fluid surrounding the gallbladder), gallbladder wall thickening (wall thickness over 3 mm), dilation of the bile duct, and sonographic Murphy's sign.
It is different from the Murphy sign found on physical examination, but both signs are associated with cholecystitis When the sonographer presses directly over the gallbladder, and the patient expresses pain, more than when the sonographer presses anywhere else, this is said to be a positive sonographic Murphy sign.

Cystohepatic triangle

Calot's trianglehepatobiliary triangleTriangle of Calot
For early cholecystectomy, the most common reason for conversion to open surgery is inflammation that hides Calot's triangle.
The latter is frequently enlarged due to inflammation of the gallbladder (e.g. cholecystitis) or the biliary tract (e.g. cholangitis) and may be removed along with the gallbladder during surgical treatment (cholecystectomy).


acute appendicitisruptured appendixburst appendix
Adults: new-onset Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, cholecystitis, renal colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, rectus sheath hematoma and epiploic appendagitis.


draining the gallbladdergallbladder drainage
In people unable to have surgery, gallbladder drainage may be tried.
It is sometimes used in cases of cholecystitis where the person is ill, and there is a need to delay or defer cholecystectomy.


inflammation of the pancreasgallstone pancreatitispancreatic inflammation
Complications of acute cholecystitis include gallstone pancreatitis, common bile duct stones, or inflammation of the common bile duct.
The differential diagnosis for pancreatitis includes but is not limited to cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, perforated peptic ulcer, bowel infarction, small bowel obstruction, hepatitis, and mesenteric ischemia.


inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cystic duct

More than 90% of the time acute cholecystitis is from blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone.