Cholera

Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks outBlue Deathchloeracholera epidemic of 1866cholera epidemicsCholera infectioncholera outbreakCholera outbreak in 2010
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.wikipedia
3,248 Related Articles

Vibrio cholerae

V. choleraeVibriocholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.
The short duration watery diarrhea may be due to an infection by cholera, although this is rare in the developed world.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarysanitary conditions
Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, and poverty. Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.
There are many other diseases which are easily transmitted in communities that have low levels of sanitation, such as ascariasis (a type of intestinal worm infection or helminthiasis), cholera, hepatitis, polio, schistosomiasis, trachoma, to name just a few.

Serotype

serotypesserovarserogroup
Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others.
Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens.

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, and poverty.
This can result in infectious diseases, such as gastroenteritis, cholera, and typhoid, among others.

Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible disease
Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.
For example, low personal and food hygiene due to the lack of a clean water supply may result in increased transmission of diseases by the fecal-oral route, such as cholera.

Waterborne diseases

water-borne diseasewaterborne diseasewater-borne diseases
It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria.

Fecal–oral route

fecal-oral routefecal-oralfaecal-oral route
Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.
Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis.

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Vibrio (cholera)

Cholera toxin

Cholera toxin BcholeraCTX
The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A), and five copies of the B subunit (part B), connected by a disulfide bond.
CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection.

Tetracycline

tetracyclintetracycline hydrochloridetetracyclins
In Bangladesh, for example, most cases are resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin.
This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis.

Bacteriophage

phagebacteriophagesphages
Non-toxic strains can acquire toxicity through a temperate bacteriophage.
In 1896, Ernest Hanbury Hankin reported that something in the waters of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India had marked antibacterial action against cholera and could pass through a very fine porcelain filter.

Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
Although it is classified as a pandemic, it is rare in the developed world.
The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around 400,000 Chinese civilians.

Hand washing

handwashinghand hygienewashing hands
Handwashing with soap or ash after using a toilet and before handling food or eating is also recommended for cholera prevention by WHO Africa.
Hand washing with soap consistently at critical moments during the day prevents the spread of diseases like diarrhoea and cholera which are transmitted through fecal-oral routes.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends focusing on prevention, preparedness, and response to combat the spread of cholera.
A series of 14 conferences that lasted from 1851 to 1938, the International Sanitary Conferences worked to combat many diseases, chief among them cholera, yellow fever, and the bubonic plague.

Oral rehydration therapy

oral rehydration saltsoral rehydration solutionoral rehydration
The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy—the replacement of fluids with slightly sweet and salty solutions.
Dehydration was a major cause of death during the 1829 cholera pandemic in Russia and Western Europe.

Toilet

toiletslavatorylavatories
Handwashing with soap or ash after using a toilet and before handling food or eating is also recommended for cholera prevention by WHO Africa.
Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation.

Water chlorination

chlorinationchlorinatedchlorine
Water purification: All water used for drinking, washing, or cooking should be sterilized by either boiling, chlorination, ozone water treatment, ultraviolet light sterilization (e.g., by solar water disinfection), or antimicrobial filtration in any area where cholera may be present. Chlorination and boiling are often the least expensive and most effective means of halting transmission. Cloth filters or sari filtration, though very basic, have significantly reduced the occurrence of cholera when used in poor villages in Bangladesh that rely on untreated surface water. Better antimicrobial filters, like those present in advanced individual water treatment hiking kits, are most effective. Public health education and adherence to appropriate sanitation practices are of primary importance to help prevent and control transmission of cholera and other diseases.
In particular, chlorination is used to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid.

Dehydration

dehydrateddehydratedehydrating
Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

Cholera vaccine

vaccinecholera vaccinesoral cholera vaccine
Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months.
Cholera vaccines are vaccines that are effective at preventing cholera.

Doxycycline

doxycycline hyclateDoxydoxycyclin
Doxycycline is typically used first line, although some strains of V. cholerae have shown resistance.
It is useful for bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydia infections, early Lyme disease, cholera and syphilis.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoleco-trimoxazolecotrimoxazole
In Bangladesh, for example, most cases are resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin.
It is used for urinary tract infections, MRSA skin infections, travelers' diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, and cholera, among others.

2010s Haiti cholera outbreak

cholera outbreakHaiti cholera outbreak2010–13 Haiti cholera outbreak
For certain genetic strains of cholera, such as the one present during the 2010 epidemic in Haiti and the 2004 outbreak in India, death can occur within two hours of becoming ill.
The 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak was the first modern large-scale outbreak of cholera – a disease once considered beaten back largely due to the invention of modern sanitation.

Copepod

copepodscopepodaCopepodes
Food transmission can occur when people harvest seafood such as oysters in waters infected with sewage, as Vibrio cholerae accumulates in planktonic crustaceans and the oysters eat the zooplankton.
In some tropical countries, such as Peru and Bangladesh, a correlation has been found between copepods' presence and cholera in untreated water, because the cholera bacteria attach to the surfaces of planktonic animals.