Cholera

Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks outBlue Deathchloeracholera epidemic of 1866cholera epidemicsCholera infectioncholera outbreakCholera outbreak in 2010
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.wikipedia
3,221 Related Articles

Vibrio cholerae

V. choleraeVibriocholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
However several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.
The short duration watery diarrhea may be due to an infection by cholera, although this is rare in the developed world.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarysanitary conditions
Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, and poverty. Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.
There are many other diseases which are easily transmitted in communities that have low levels of sanitation, such as ascariasis (a type of intestinal worm infection or helminthiasis), cholera, hepatitis, polio, schistosomiasis, trachoma, to name just a few.

Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible disease
Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.
For example, low personal and food hygiene due to the lack of a clean water supply may result in increased transmission of diseases by the fecal-oral route, such as cholera.

Cholera toxin

Cholera toxin BcholeraCTX
The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A), and five copies of the B subunit (part B), connected by a disulfide bond.
CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection.

Tetracycline

tetracyclintetracycline hydrochloridetetracyclins
In Bangladesh, for example, most cases are resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. Other antibiotics proven to be effective include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone.
This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis.

Fecal–oral route

fecal-oral routefecal-oralfaecal-oral route
Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.
Diseases caused by fecal-oral transmission include diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, polio and hepatitis.

Serotype

serotypesserovarserogroup
Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others.
Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens.

Hand washing

handwashinghand hygienewashing hands
Handwashing with soap or ash after using a toilet and before handling food or eating is also recommended for cholera prevention by WHO Africa.
Hand washing with soap consistently at critical moments during the day prevents the spread of diseases like diarrhoea and cholera which are transmitted through fecal-oral routes.

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, and poverty.
This can result in infectious diseases, such as gastroenteritis, cholera, and typhoid, among others.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends focusing on prevention, preparedness, and response to combat the spread of cholera.
A series of 14 conferences that lasted from 1851 to 1938, the International Sanitary Conferences worked to combat many diseases, chief among them cholera, yellow fever, and the bubonic plague.

Water chlorination

chlorinationchlorinatedchlorine
Water purification: All water used for drinking, washing, or cooking should be sterilized by either boiling, chlorination, ozone water treatment, ultraviolet light sterilization (e.g., by solar water disinfection), or antimicrobial filtration in any area where cholera may be present. Chlorination and boiling are often the least expensive and most effective means of halting transmission. Cloth filters or sari filtration, though very basic, have significantly reduced the occurrence of cholera when used in poor villages in Bangladesh that rely on untreated surface water. Better antimicrobial filters, like those present in advanced individual water treatment hiking kits, are most effective. Public health education and adherence to appropriate sanitation practices are of primary importance to help prevent and control transmission of cholera and other diseases.
In particular, chlorination is used to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid.

2010s Haiti cholera outbreak

cholera outbreakHaiti cholera outbreak2010–13 Haiti cholera outbreak
For certain genetic strains of cholera, such as the one present during the 2010 epidemic in Haiti and the 2004 outbreak in India, death can occur within two hours of becoming ill.
The 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak was the first modern large-scale outbreak of cholera – a disease once considered beaten back largely due to the invention of modern sanitation.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoleco-trimoxazolecotrimoxazole
In Bangladesh, for example, most cases are resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. Other antibiotics proven to be effective include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone.
It is used for urinary tract infections, MRSA skin infections, travelers' diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, and cholera, among others.

Toilet

toiletslavatorylavatories
Handwashing with soap or ash after using a toilet and before handling food or eating is also recommended for cholera prevention by WHO Africa.
Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation.

Doxycycline

doxycycline hyclateDoxydoxycyclin
Doxycycline is typically used first line, although some strains of V. cholerae have shown resistance.
It is useful for bacterial pneumonia, acne, chlamydia infections, early Lyme disease, cholera and syphilis.

Waterborne diseases

water-borne diseasewaterborne diseasewater-borne diseases
It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria.

Cholera vaccine

vaccinecholera vaccinesoral cholera vaccine
Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months.
Cholera vaccines are vaccines that are effective at preventing cholera.

Chloramphenicol

chloromycetin8chloramphenicolchloramphenicol succinate
Other antibiotics proven to be effective include cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and furazolidone.
By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever.

2016–18 Yemen cholera outbreak

2016–17 Yemen cholera outbreakoutbreak of choleracholera outbreak
In October 2016, an outbreak of cholera began in war-ravaged Yemen.
In October 2016, an outbreak of cholera began in Yemen and is ongoing as of October 2018.

Cholera outbreaks and pandemics

cholera epidemiccholera pandemiccholera outbreak
Seven large outbreaks have occurred over the last 200 years with millions of deaths.
Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others.

Bacteriophage

phagebacteriophagesphages
Non-toxic strains can acquire toxicity through a temperate bacteriophage.
In 1896, Ernest Hanbury Hankin reported that something in the waters of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India had marked antibacterial action against cholera and could pass through a very fine porcelain filter.

1846–1860 cholera pandemic

third cholera pandemicthird pandemiccholera epidemic
The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil.
In Russia, more than one million people died of cholera.

1817–1824 cholera pandemic

first cholera pandemicCholera pandemicdisease-ridden
The first cholera pandemic occurred in the Bengal region of India, near Calcutta starting in 1817 through 1824.
While cholera had spread across India many times previously, this outbreak went further; it reached as far as China and the Mediterranean Sea before receding.