A report on Christianity and Islam

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Various depictions of Jesus
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
Muslim men reading the Quran
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
Islamic veils represent modesty
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
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Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
The Cenacle on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles

It is the world's second-largest religion behind Christianity, with more than two billion followers, comprising around 25 percent of the global population.

- Islam

The later rise of Islam in North Africa reduced the size and numbers of Christian congregations, leaving in large numbers only the Coptic Church in Egypt, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in the Horn of Africa and the Nubian Church in the Sudan (Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia).

- Christianity
An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

12 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.

Abrahamic religions

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Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.
A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll
Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible
A cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921), the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival
Coronation of Haile Selassie of Abyssinia in 1928.
Samaritan High Priest with the Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)
The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
The word God written in Arabic
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1877)

Abrahamic religions are those religions that worship the God of Abraham, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Judaism's texts, traditions, and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and Islam.

Jerusalem

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City in Western Asia.

City in Western Asia.

Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Bank of Israel
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
National Library of Israel
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Pais Arena
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century
Demographic history of Jerusalem by religion based on available data
Teddy Stadium, Malha

Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy for the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts.

Monotheism

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Belief that there is only one deity, an all-supreme being that is universally referred to as God.

Belief that there is only one deity, an all-supreme being that is universally referred to as God.

The tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts.
The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in essence but three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit.
God in The Creation of Adam, fresco by Michelangelo (c. 1508–1512)
Arabic calligraphy reading "Allah, may his glory be glorified"
Mandaean pendant
Baháʼí House of Worship, Langenhain, Germany
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten.
Shang Dynasty bronze script character for tian (天), which translates to Heaven and sky.
Krishna displays his Vishvarupa (universal form) to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra.
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
A Sikh temple, known as Nanaksar Gurudwara, in Alberta, Canada.
Ik Onkār, a Sikh symbol representing "the One Supreme Reality"
Fictionalized portrait of Xenophanes from a 17th-century engraving
Remains of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece.

Monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Baháʼí Faith, Cheondoism, Christianity, Deism, Druzism, Eckankar, Sikhism, some sects of Hinduism (such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism), Islam, Judaism, Mandaeism, Rastafari, Seicho-no-Ie, Tenrikyo, Yazidism, and Atenism.

Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)

Hell

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Location in the afterlife in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, most often through torture, as eternal punishment after death.

Location in the afterlife in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, most often through torture, as eternal punishment after death.

Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)
Hell – detail from a fresco in the medieval church of St Nicholas in Raduil, Bulgaria
Hel (1889) by Johannes Gehrts, depicts the Old Norse Hel, a goddess-like figure, in the location of the same name, which she oversees
Preserved colonial wall painting of 1802 depicting Hell, by Tadeo Escalante, inside the Church of San Juan Bautista in Huaro, Peru
In this ~1275 BC Book of the Dead scene the dead scribe Hunefer's heart is weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the canine-headed Anubis. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the crocodile-headed Ammit.
Ancient Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing the god Dumuzid being tortured in the Underworld by galla demons
"Gehenna", Valley of Hinnom, 2007
The parable of the Rich man and Lazarus depicting the rich man in hell asking for help to Abraham and Lazarus in heaven by James Tissot
Harrowing of Hell. Christ leads Adam by the hand, c.1504
The Last Judgment, Hell, c.1431, by Fra Angelico
Muhammad, along with Buraq and Gabriel, visit hell, and they see "shameless women" being eternally punished for exposing their hair to the sight of strangers. Persian, 15th century.
Muhammad requests Maalik to show him Hell during his heavenly journey. Miniature from The David Collection.
Naraka in the Burmese representation
Yama's Court and Hell. The Blue figure is Yamaraja (The Hindu god of death) with his consort Yami and Chitragupta
17th-century painting from Government Museum, Chennai.
17th-century cloth painting depicting seven levels of Jain Hell and various tortures suffered in them. Left panel depicts the demi-god and his animal vehicle presiding over each Hell.
A Chinese glazed earthenware sculpture of "Hell's torturer", 16th century, Ming Dynasty
Dante and Virgil in Hell (1850) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In this painting, the two are shown watching the condemned.
Visit to hell by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega
Belief in Hell by country (2017-20)

Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as eternal destinations, the biggest examples of which are Christianity and Islam, whereas religions with reincarnation usually depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations, as is the case in the dharmic religions.

Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne

Last Judgment

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Part of the Abrahamic religions and the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

Part of the Abrahamic religions and the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Print of the Last Judgment, made by Johannes Wierix in the 16th century.
The Last Judgment by John Martin (1854)
The Last Judgment mosaic (14th-century), south facade of Saint Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic.
The Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (1536-1541)
The Last Judgment, 17th-century icon from Lipie. Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland.
The Last Judgment, mural from Voroneț Monastery, Romania
Viktor Vasnetsov's The Last Judgment, 1904
William Blake's The Day of Judgment printed in 1808 to illustrate the Robert Blair's poem "The Grave"
Doom painting, St Mary's Church, North Leigh, Oxfordshire, 15th century
Armenian manuscript depicts the Last Judgment,1679
Last Judgment (Russia, 18th century)
Diagram of "Plain of Assembly" (Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from an autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell), and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).

Christianity considers the Second Coming of Jesus Christ to entail the final judgment by God of all people who have ever lived, Catholic Encyclopedia: General Judgment: "Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment. To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (93-231700-6 register Holy BIBLE service name number Jermaine Thomas McCoy 93-231700-6 ), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment by the Fathers. In the New Testament the Parousia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine. The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances ( sqq.;SGT john 1:18 Parish all world threw Justice hall Dean Jermaine Thomas McCoy sqq.).

Patristic testimony to this dogma is clear and unanimous." resulting in eternal bliss for some and eternal suffering for others. The concept is found in all the canonical gospels, particularly in the Gospel of Matthew. The Christian tradition is also followed by Islam, where it is mentioned in the 43rd chapter (Az-Zukhruf) of the Quran, according to some interpretations. Christian futurists believe it will follow the resurrection of the dead and the Second Coming of Jesus, while full preterists believe it has already occurred. The Last Judgment has inspired numerous artistic depictions.

Moses Indignant at the Golden Calf by William Blake, 1799–1800

Idolatry

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Worship of a cult image or "idol" as though it were God.

Worship of a cult image or "idol" as though it were God.

Moses Indignant at the Golden Calf by William Blake, 1799–1800
Moses breaks the Ten Commandments in response to the golden calf worship in this 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld.
A 1768 synagogue parchment with the Ten Commandments by Jekuthiel Sofer. Among other things, it prohibits idolatry
St. Benedict destroying a pagan idol, by Juan Rizi (1600–1681)
Pope Pius V praying with a crucifix, painting by August Kraus
The veneration of images of Mary is called Marian devotion (above: Lithuania), a practice questioned in the majority of Protestant Christianity.
Altar with Christian Bible and crucifix on it, in a Lutheran Protestant church
An expression of reverence to Gomateshwara statue in Jainism.
Inti Raymi, a winter solstice festival of the Inca people, reveres Inti – the sun deity. Offerings include round bread and maize beer.
The Aztec Tula Atlantean statues (above) have been called as symbols of idolatry, but may have just been stone images of warriors.

In Abrahamic religions (namely Judaism, Samaritanism, Christianity, the Baháʼí Faith, and Islam) idolatry connotes the worship of something or someone other than the Abrahamic god as if it were God.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

Europe

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Landmass, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Landmass, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
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A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
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Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
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Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
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Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with Byzantium and Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the British Isles, France, Christianised western Germany, the Alpine regions and northern and central Italy.

Christianity was legalised by Constantine I in 313 CE after three centuries of imperial persecution.

Sasanian Empire

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The last Iranian empire before the early Muslim conquests of the.

The last Iranian empire before the early Muslim conquests of the.

The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent c. 620, under Khosrow II
Initial coinage of founder Ardashir I, as King of Persis Artaxerxes (Ardaxsir) V. c. 205/6–223/4 CE. Obv: Bearded facing head, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "The divine Ardaxir, king" in Pahlavi. Rev: Bearded head of Papak, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "son of the divinity Papak, king" in Pahlavi.
The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent c. 620, under Khosrow II
1840 illustration of a Sasanian relief at Firuzabad, showing Ardashir I's victory over Artabanus IV and his forces.
Rock relief of Ardashir I receiving the ring of kingship by the Zoroastrian supreme god Ahura Mazda.
Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rostam of Persian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian (standing) and Philip the Arab (kneeling), suing for peace, following the victory at Edessa.
The Humiliation of Valerian by Shapur (Hans Holbein the Younger, 1521, pen and black ink on a chalk sketch, Kunstmuseum Basel)
The spread of Manichaeism (300–500)
Rome and satellite kingdom of Armenia around 300, after Narseh's defeat
Bust of Shapur II ((r. 309 – 379))
Early Alchon Huns coin based on the coin design of Shapur II, adding the Alchon Tamgha symbol Alchon_Tamga.png and "Alchono" (αλχοννο) in Bactrian script on the obverse. Dated 400–440.
Bahram V is a great favourite in Persian literature and poetry. "Bahram and the Indian princess in the black pavilion." Depiction of a Khamsa (Quintet) by the great Persian poet Nizami, mid-16th-century Safavid era.
A coin of Yazdegerd II
Plate of Peroz I hunting argali
Plate of a Sasanian king hunting rams, perhaps Kavad I ((r. 488 – 496)).
Plate depicting Khosrow I.
15th-century Shahnameh illustration of Hormizd IV seated on his throne.
Coin of Khosrow II.
The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the combined Sassanid, Avar, and Slavic forces depicted on the murals of the Moldovița Monastery, Romania
Queen Boran, daughter of Khosrau II, the first woman and one of the last rulers on the throne of the Sasanian Empire, she reigned from 17 June 629 to 16 June 630
Extent of the Sasanian Empire in 632 with modern borders superimposed
Umayyad Caliphate coin imitating Khosrau II. Coin of the time of Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan. BCRA (Basra) mint; "Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, governor". Dated AH 56 = 675/6. Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II right; bismillah and three pellets in margin; c/m: winged creature right / Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; date to left, mint name to right.
The Walls of Derbent, part of the Sasanian defense lines
Sasanian army helmet
A Sassanid king posing as an armored cavalryman, Taq-e Bostan, Iran
Sassanian silver plate showing lance combat between two nobles.
A fine cameo showing an equestrian combat of Shapur I and Roman emperor Valerian in which the Roman emperor is seized following the Battle of Edessa, according to Shapur's own statement, "with our own hand", in 260
Sassanian fortress in Derbent, Dagestan. Now inscribed on Russia's UNESCO world heritage list since 2003.
Egyptian woven pattern woolen curtain or trousers, which was a copy of a Sassanid silk import, which was in turn based on a fresco of King Khosrau II fighting Axum Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5–6th century
Persian ambassador at the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 526-539 CE, with explanatory text. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.
Coin of the Kushanshah Peroz II Kushanshah ((r. 303 – 330))
Foreign dignitary drinking wine, on ceiling of Cave 1, at Ajanta Caves, possibly depicting the Sasanian embassy to Indian king Pulakesin II (610–642), photograph and drawing.
Taq-i Kisra, the facade of the Sasanian palace in the capital Ctesiphon. The city developed into a rich commercial metropolis. It may have been the most populous city of the world in 570–622.
Plate of a Sasanian king, located in the Azerbaijan Museum in Iran.
A bowl with Khosrau I's image at the center
Horse head, gilded silver, 4th century, Sasanian art
A Sasanian silver plate featuring a simurgh. The mythical bird was used as the royal emblem in the Sasanian period.
A Sasanian silver plate depicting a royal lion hunt
The remains of the Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Sasanian silk twill textile of a simurgh in a beaded surround, 6th–7th century. Used in the reliquary of Saint Len, Paris
Sasanian sea trade routes
Seal of a Sassanian nobleman holding a flower, ca. 3rd–early 4th century AD.
Ruins of Adur Gushnasp, one of three main Zoroastrian temples in the Sassanian Empire
The Sasanians developed an accurate, phonetic alphabet to write down the sacred Avesta
Sasanian-era cornelian gem, depicting Abraham advancing towards Isaac with a knife in his hands. A ram is depicted to the right of Abraham. Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscription ZNH mwdly l’styny. Created 4th-5th century AD
A Sasanian fortress in Derbent, Russia (the Caspian Gates)
"Parsees of Bombay" a wood engraving, c. 1873

Bahram V's son Yazdegerd II (438–457) was in some ways a moderate ruler, but, in contrast to Yazdegerd I, he practised a harsh policy towards minority religions, particularly Christianity.

The same year, the first raiders from the Arab tribes, newly united by Islam, arrived in Persian territory.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

Clergy

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Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso in 2007
Bishop Maurício Andrade, primate of the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, gives a crosier to Bishop Saulo Barros
Archbishop Jose S. Palma with his assistant ministers during Pontifical High Mass
Archbishop Karl-Josef Rauber, Cardinal Godfried Danneels, Bishop Roger Vangheluwe and Bishop Jozef De Kesel
Orthodox Christian clergy: bishop (right, at altar), priest (left), and two deacons (in gold)
Ethiopian Orthodox clergy lead a procession in celebration of Saint Michael
Lutheran pastor confirming the youth of his congregation
The Reverend Hans G. Ridderstedt (1919-2007), Assistant Vicar at Stockholm Cathedral
A Sunni jurist (mufti) delivering a sermon from a pulpit
Iranian Shi'a scholar and author Sheikh Ali Akbar Nahavandi.
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry
Regina Jonas, the world's first female rabbi, ordained in 1935, killed in the Holocaust in 1944.
Sir George Fleming, 2nd Baronet, British churchman.
Charles Wesley Leffingwell, Episcopal priest

In Christianity, the specific names and roles of the clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, elders, priests, bishops, preachers, pastors, presbyters, ministers, and the pope.

In Islam, a religious leader is often known formally or informally as an imam, caliph, qadi, mufti, mullah, muezzin, or ayatollah.