A report on Christianity and Jerusalem

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Various depictions of Jesus
Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
Supreme Court of Israel
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
Bank of Israel
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
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Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
National Library of Israel
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Distribution of Catholics
Pais Arena
Distribution of Protestants
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Distribution of other Christians
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
The Cenacle on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century
Demographic history of Jerusalem by religion based on available data
Teddy Stadium, Malha

Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy for the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

- Jerusalem

An early Jewish Christian community was founded in Jerusalem under the leadership of the Pillars of the Church, namely James the Just, the brother of Jesus, Peter, and John.

- Christianity
An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

11 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Judaism's texts, traditions, and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and Islam.

According to the Hebrew Bible, the United Monarchy was established under Saul and continued under King David and Solomon with its capital in Jerusalem.

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

Islam

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Abrahamic monotheistic religion, centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

Abrahamic monotheistic religion, centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

It is the world's second-largest religion behind Christianity, with more than two billion followers, comprising around 25 percent of the global population.

The cities of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam, in descending order: Masjid al-Haram, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, and Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.

Abrahamic religions

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Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.
A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll
Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible
A cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921), the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival
Coronation of Haile Selassie of Abyssinia in 1928.
Samaritan High Priest with the Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)
The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
The word God written in Arabic
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1877)

Abrahamic religions are those religions that worship the God of Abraham, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah, and facing in the direction of Jerusalem's Temple Mount.

Judaea (Roman province)

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Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet
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Old Roman era gate, Bab al-'Amud in Jerusalem's Old City (today part of Damascus Gate)
Roman stepped road in the Shephelah hill country of Judea (adjacent to Highway 375)

The crucifixion of Jesus took place circa 30–33 CE, and his earliest followers had formed an apocalyptic messianic sect which later developed into Christianity.

At around the time of the revolt, the province of Judaea was renamed Syria Palaestina, alongside the renaming of Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina.

Progress of the Roman army during the siege.

Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE)

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Progress of the Roman army during the siege.
Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1867.
Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by Francesco Hayez depicts the destruction of the Second Temple by Roman soldiers. Oil on canvas, 1867.
Fresco showing signs of burning, Wohl Archaeological Museum, Jewish Quarter
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount (Jerusalem) thrown onto the street by Roman soldiers on the Ninth of Av, 70
The victory was commemorated in Rome with the Arch of Titus, which depicts the valuables seized from the Temple, including the Temple menorah
'Siege and destruction of Jerusalem', La Passion de Nostre Seigneur c.1504
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem, by David Roberts (1850).

The Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE) was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), in which the Roman army led by future emperor Titus besieged Jerusalem, the center of Jewish rebel resistance in the Roman province of Judaea.

They spread his teachings across the Roman Empire, giving rise to the new religion of Christianity.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid

Crucifixion of Jesus

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The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid
A depiction of the Raising of the Cross, by Sebastiano Mazzoni, 17th century, Ca' Rezzonico
Bronzino's depiction of the crucifixion with three nails, no ropes, and a hypopodium standing support, c. 1545.
Christ on the Cross between two thieves. Illumination from the Vaux Passional, 16th century
Crucifixion, from the Buhl Altarpiece, a particularly large Gothic oil on panel painting from the 1490s.
Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, medieval illustration from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg, 12th century
Andrea di Bartolo, Way to Calvary, c. 1400. The cluster of halos at the left are the Virgin Mary in front, with the Three Marys.
A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the historical site
The dead Christ with the Virgin, John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene. Unknown painter of the 18th century
Crucifixion of Jesus on a two-beamed cross, from the Sainte Bible (1866)
Torture stake, a simple wooden torture stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
Crucifixion, seen from the Cross, by James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Christ on the Cross, by Carl Heinrich Bloch, showing the skies darkened
Bronzino's Deposition of Christ
Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (detail of the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck, c. 1432). Christ is represented as the sacrificial Lamb of God.
Detail of the countenance of Christ just dead, by José Luján Pérez, 1793, Las Palmas Cathedral
Betrayal of Christ, stained glass, Gotland, Sweden, 1240
Mateo Cerezo, Ecce Homo, 1650
Carrying the Cross fresco, Decani monastery, Serbia, 14th century
Orthodox Crucifixion icon, Athens, Greece
Crucifixion of Christ, Michelangelo, 1540
Print of the Crucifixion, made at the end of the 16th century<ref>{{Cite web|title=De Kruisiging|url=https://lib.ugent.be/viewer/archive.ugent.be:B4D16A3C-15CD-11E9-954B-23312282636C#?c=&m=&s=&cv=&xywh=-2876,-181,8131,3613|access-date=2020-09-28|website=lib.ugent.be}}</ref>
Calvary by Paolo Veronese, 16th century
From a 14th–15th century Welsh Manuscript
Pietro Lorenzetti fresco, Assisi Basilica, 1310–1329
Descent from the Cross, Rubens (1616–17)
Descent from the Cross, Raphael, 1507

There is no reference to a woman named Veronica in the Gospels, but sources such as Acta Sanctorum describe her as a pious woman of Jerusalem who, moved with pity as Jesus carried his cross to Golgotha, gave him her veil that he might wipe his forehead.

However, the belief in the redemptive nature of Jesus' death predates the Pauline letters and goes back to the earliest days of Christianity and the Jerusalem church.

Sasanian Empire

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The last Iranian empire before the early Muslim conquests of the.

The last Iranian empire before the early Muslim conquests of the.

The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent c. 620, under Khosrow II
Initial coinage of founder Ardashir I, as King of Persis Artaxerxes (Ardaxsir) V. c. 205/6–223/4 CE. Obv: Bearded facing head, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "The divine Ardaxir, king" in Pahlavi. Rev: Bearded head of Papak, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara, legend "son of the divinity Papak, king" in Pahlavi.
The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent c. 620, under Khosrow II
1840 illustration of a Sasanian relief at Firuzabad, showing Ardashir I's victory over Artabanus IV and his forces.
Rock relief of Ardashir I receiving the ring of kingship by the Zoroastrian supreme god Ahura Mazda.
Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rostam of Persian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian (standing) and Philip the Arab (kneeling), suing for peace, following the victory at Edessa.
The Humiliation of Valerian by Shapur (Hans Holbein the Younger, 1521, pen and black ink on a chalk sketch, Kunstmuseum Basel)
The spread of Manichaeism (300–500)
Rome and satellite kingdom of Armenia around 300, after Narseh's defeat
Bust of Shapur II ((r. 309 – 379))
Early Alchon Huns coin based on the coin design of Shapur II, adding the Alchon Tamgha symbol Alchon_Tamga.png and "Alchono" (αλχοννο) in Bactrian script on the obverse. Dated 400–440.
Bahram V is a great favourite in Persian literature and poetry. "Bahram and the Indian princess in the black pavilion." Depiction of a Khamsa (Quintet) by the great Persian poet Nizami, mid-16th-century Safavid era.
A coin of Yazdegerd II
Plate of Peroz I hunting argali
Plate of a Sasanian king hunting rams, perhaps Kavad I ((r. 488 – 496)).
Plate depicting Khosrow I.
15th-century Shahnameh illustration of Hormizd IV seated on his throne.
Coin of Khosrow II.
The Siege of Constantinople in 626 by the combined Sassanid, Avar, and Slavic forces depicted on the murals of the Moldovița Monastery, Romania
Queen Boran, daughter of Khosrau II, the first woman and one of the last rulers on the throne of the Sasanian Empire, she reigned from 17 June 629 to 16 June 630
Extent of the Sasanian Empire in 632 with modern borders superimposed
Umayyad Caliphate coin imitating Khosrau II. Coin of the time of Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan. BCRA (Basra) mint; "Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, governor". Dated AH 56 = 675/6. Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II right; bismillah and three pellets in margin; c/m: winged creature right / Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; date to left, mint name to right.
The Walls of Derbent, part of the Sasanian defense lines
Sasanian army helmet
A Sassanid king posing as an armored cavalryman, Taq-e Bostan, Iran
Sassanian silver plate showing lance combat between two nobles.
A fine cameo showing an equestrian combat of Shapur I and Roman emperor Valerian in which the Roman emperor is seized following the Battle of Edessa, according to Shapur's own statement, "with our own hand", in 260
Sassanian fortress in Derbent, Dagestan. Now inscribed on Russia's UNESCO world heritage list since 2003.
Egyptian woven pattern woolen curtain or trousers, which was a copy of a Sassanid silk import, which was in turn based on a fresco of King Khosrau II fighting Axum Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5–6th century
Persian ambassador at the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 526-539 CE, with explanatory text. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.
Coin of the Kushanshah Peroz II Kushanshah ((r. 303 – 330))
Foreign dignitary drinking wine, on ceiling of Cave 1, at Ajanta Caves, possibly depicting the Sasanian embassy to Indian king Pulakesin II (610–642), photograph and drawing.
Taq-i Kisra, the facade of the Sasanian palace in the capital Ctesiphon. The city developed into a rich commercial metropolis. It may have been the most populous city of the world in 570–622.
Plate of a Sasanian king, located in the Azerbaijan Museum in Iran.
A bowl with Khosrau I's image at the center
Horse head, gilded silver, 4th century, Sasanian art
A Sasanian silver plate featuring a simurgh. The mythical bird was used as the royal emblem in the Sasanian period.
A Sasanian silver plate depicting a royal lion hunt
The remains of the Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Sasanian silk twill textile of a simurgh in a beaded surround, 6th–7th century. Used in the reliquary of Saint Len, Paris
Sasanian sea trade routes
Seal of a Sassanian nobleman holding a flower, ca. 3rd–early 4th century AD.
Ruins of Adur Gushnasp, one of three main Zoroastrian temples in the Sassanian Empire
The Sasanians developed an accurate, phonetic alphabet to write down the sacred Avesta
Sasanian-era cornelian gem, depicting Abraham advancing towards Isaac with a knife in his hands. A ram is depicted to the right of Abraham. Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscription ZNH mwdly l’styny. Created 4th-5th century AD
A Sasanian fortress in Derbent, Russia (the Caspian Gates)
"Parsees of Bombay" a wood engraving, c. 1873

Bahram V's son Yazdegerd II (438–457) was in some ways a moderate ruler, but, in contrast to Yazdegerd I, he practised a harsh policy towards minority religions, particularly Christianity.

Jerusalem fell in 614, Alexandria in 619, and the rest of Egypt by 621.

A 15th century depiction of Jesus crucified between the two thieves

Crucifixion

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Method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross or beam and left to hang until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.

Method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross or beam and left to hang until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.

A 15th century depiction of Jesus crucified between the two thieves
Gabriel von Max's 1866 painting Martyress depicts a crucified young woman and a young man laying flowers at her feet
Crucifixion window by Henry E. Sharp, 1872, in St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Charleston, South Carolina
Early Meiji period crucifixion (c. 1865–1868), Yokohama, Japan. A 25-year-old servant, Sokichi, was executed by crucifixion for murdering his employer's son during the course of a robbery. He was affixed by tying to a stake with two cross-pieces.
The Twenty Six Martyrs of Japan
Poster showing a German soldier nailing a man to a tree, as American soldiers come to his rescue. Published in Manila by Bureau of Printing (1917).
Prisoner kneeling on chains, thumbs supporting arms, photographic print on stereo card, Mukden, China (c. 1906)
Devotional crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, Easter 2006
Sculpture construction: Crucifixion, homage to Mondrian, by Barbara Hepworth, United Kingdom (2007)
Allegory of Poland (1914–1918), postcard by Sergey Solomko
Car-float at the feast of the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos, Colonia Doctores, Mexico City (2011)
Antisemitic American political cartoon, Sound Money magazine, April 15, 1896 issue
Protester tied to a cross in Washington D.C. (1970)
Crucifixion, by Jan Van Eyck (c. 1430-1440)
Christ crucified, by Diego Velázquez (1632)

The crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth is central to Christianity, and the cross (sometimes depicting Jesus nailed to it) is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches.

In 1968, archaeologists discovered at Giv'at ha-Mivtar in northeast Jerusalem the remains of one Jehohanan, who had been crucified in the 1st century.

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, woodcut print from the Apocalypse of Albrecht Dürer (1497–1498), Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe

Eschatology

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Eschatology concerns expectations of the end of the present age, human history, or of the world itself.

Eschatology concerns expectations of the end of the present age, human history, or of the world itself.

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, woodcut print from the Apocalypse of Albrecht Dürer (1497–1498), Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe
Scroll of Book of Isaiah
The Antichrist, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1521). Here the Antichrist is shown wearing the triple crown of the Roman papacy.
Icon of the Second Coming. Greek, ca. 1700 A.D.
William Miller predicted the end of the world in 1843, known as the Great Disappointment
Former Watch Tower headquarters in Brooklyn. The society made a number of emphatic claims of impending last days and ensuing chaos between 1879–1924.
Diagram of "Plain of Assembly" (Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from an autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell), and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).
Bahá'í House of Worship, Delhi, India
Haile Selassie I is viewed as god incarnate in Rastafari
Bodhisattva Maitreya from the 2nd-century Gandharan art period
1905 painting by Emil Doepler, depicting Odin fighting his old nemesis Fenrir
1905 painting by Emil Doepler, depicting Ragnarök after Surtr has engulfed the world with fire
A diagram showing the life cycle of the Sun

Some forms of Christianity depict the end time as a period of tribulation that precedes the second coming of Christ, who will face the rise of the Antichrist along with his power structure and false prophets, and usher in the Kingdom of God.

Preterists believe the term last days (or Time of the End) refers to, neither the last days of the Earth, nor the last days of humankind, but the end of the Old Covenant between God and Israel; which, according to preterism, took place when the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 CE.

Scene of the Roman Theatre at Palmyra, 2005

Muslim conquest of the Levant

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The Muslim conquest of the Levant (فتح الشام), also known as the Rashidun conquest of Syria, occurred in the first half of the 7th century, shortly after the rise of Islam.

The Muslim conquest of the Levant (فتح الشام), also known as the Rashidun conquest of Syria, occurred in the first half of the 7th century, shortly after the rise of Islam.

Scene of the Roman Theatre at Palmyra, 2005
Map detailing Rashidun Caliphate's invasion of the Levant.
Ruins of Ancient Petra, one of the first cities to fall to invading Muslim armies
Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's invasion of Syria.
Geographical map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid's invasion of Syria
Map detailing the route of Muslim invasion of central Syria.
Muslim and Byzantine troop movements before the battle of Yarmouk
Map detailing the route of Muslim invasion of northern Syria.
Temple of Jupiter, Lebanon.
Map detailing the route of Khalid ibn Walid and Iyad ibn Ghanm's raids into Anatolia.
Rashidun Empire at its peak under third Rashidun Caliph, Uthman (654)

The Arabs of Syria were people of no consequence until the migration of the powerful Ghassanid tribe from Yemen to Syria, who converted to Christianity and thereafter ruled a semi-autonomous state with their own king under Roman vassalage.

By 635 CE, Palestine, Jordan and Southern Syria, with the exception of Jerusalem and Caesarea, were in Muslim hands.