An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria
Various depictions of Jesus
Interior of St. Stephen Church, Gütersloh.
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
Sayfo Monument at St. Peters & St. Pauls Church, Hallunda.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Damage to exterior of St. Mary Church of the Holy Belt during the Syrian Civil War.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Ignatius Aphrem II, current Patriarch of Antioch.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
Peshitto Bible at Mor Hananyo Monastery.
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
Icon of the Virgin Mary by St. Luke the Evangelist.
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
Celebration of Mass at St. John's Church, Stuttgart, Germany.
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
Altar of St.Mary's Knanaya Syriac Church Kottayam.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Head Office of The Evangelistic Association Of The East.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Mor Gabriel Monastery, Midyat, Turkey
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
St. Awgin Monastery, Nusaybin, Turkey
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
St. George's Monastery, Malekurish
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
St. Ignatius Monastery, Manjinikkara
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Mor Hananyo Monastery
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
St. Sharbel Church Midyat
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
St. Mary's Church, Bethlehem
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
St. Mary's Cathedral, Manarcad
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Tomb of St. Baselios Yeldo
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
St. Ephrem Church Vienna, Austria
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
St. Thomas Cathedral, Acton, London, England
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
St. Jacob of Sarug Monastery Warburg, Germany
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Church of Our Lady, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
St. Avgin Monastery, Arth, Switzerland
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
St. Aphrem Cathedral, Södertälje, Sweden
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
Syriac Orthodox dioceses in the medieval period.Palestine
Syria
Lebanon and Cyprus
Cilicia
Cappadocia
Amid and Arzun
Commagene
Osrhoene
Mardin and Tur Abdin
Iraq
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St. Matthew Monastery, Nineveh, Iraq
A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Monastery of Saint Mark, Jerusalem
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
The Cenacle on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles

The supreme head of the Syriac Orthodox Church is named Patriarch of Antioch, in reference to his titular pretense to one of the five patriarchates of the Pentarchy of Byzantine Christianity.

- Syriac Orthodox Church

The Oriental Orthodox communion consists of six groups: Syriac Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, Eritrean Orthodox, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (India), and Armenian Apostolic churches.

- Christianity
An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

12 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.

History of Christianity

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Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.
The eastern Mediterranean region in the time of Paul the Apostle
Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century
St. Lawrence (martyred 258) before Emperor Valerianus by Fra Angelico
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles
Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the early Roman catacombs, 4th century.
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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.
The ceiling mosaic of the Arian Baptistery, built in Ravenna by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great.
An Eastern Roman mosaic showing a basilica with towers, mounted with Christian crosses, 5th century, Louvre
The Church of the East during the Middle Ages
Coptic icon of St. Anthony the Great, father of Christian monasticism and early anchorite. The Coptic inscription reads ‘Ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓ’ ("the Great Father Anthony").
A mosaic of Justinian I in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Roderick is venerated as one of the Martyrs of Córdoba
Raid on the Monastery of Zobe and the death of hegumenos Michael and his 36 brothers, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II.
"Hospitality of Abraham", icon by Andrei Rublev; the three angels represent the Godhead according to Trinitarian Christians.
Western Europe, the Holy Roman Empire, Kievan Rus', and the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages (year 1000)
The spread of Cistercians from their original sites in Western-Central Europe during the Middle Ages
Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor at the gate of Canossa Castle in 1077, during the Investiture controversy.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusader states with their strongholds in the Holy Land at their height, between the First and the Second Crusade (1135)
St. Cyril and St. Methodius monument on Mt. Radhošť
Christianization of Kievan Rus', the first unified federation of Slavic tribes
Christianization of Moravia under the rule of Rastislav
Jan Hus defending his theses at the Council of Constance (1415), painting by the Czech artist Václav Brožík
Michelangelo's Pietà (1498–99) in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
American Discovery Viewed by Native Americans (Thomas Hart Benton, 1922). European discovery and colonization had disastrous effects on the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and their societies.
The Council in Santa Maria Maggiore church; Museo Diocesiano Tridentino, Trento
Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th-century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Philipp Spener, the founder of Pietism
Churches of the Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug
Demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow on the orders of Joseph Stalin, 5 December 1931, consistent with the doctrine of state atheism in the USSR
Pope Pius XI
Laying on of hands during a service in a neo-charismatic church in Ghana

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

According to the tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Muslim conquest of the Levant was a relief for Christians oppressed by the Western Roman Empire.

Saint George's Cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey

Eastern Orthodox Church

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Second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members.

Second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members.

Saint George's Cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey
Christ Pantocrator, sixth century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sinai; the oldest known icon of Christ, in one of the oldest monasteries in the world
Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic (Hagia Sophia, c. 1000)
An icon of Saint John the Baptist, 14th century, North Macedonia
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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Hagia Sophia, the largest church in the world and patriarchal basilica of Constantinople for nearly a thousand years, later converted into a mosque, then a museum, then back to a mosque.
The baptism of Princess Olga in Constantinople, a miniature from the Radzivill Chronicle
Latin Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Orthodox controlled Byzantine Empire, in 1204.
Timeline showing the main autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches, from an Eastern Orthodox point of view, up to 2021
Canonical territories of the main autocephalous and autonomous Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions as of 2020
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Percentage distribution of Eastern Orthodox Christians by country
John of Damascus
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Our Lady of Tinos is the major Marian shrine in Greece.
The Theotokos of Vladimir, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary
Last Judgment: 12th-century Byzantine mosaic from Torcello Cathedral
David glorified by the women of Israel from the Paris Psalter, example of the Macedonian art (Byzantine) (sometimes called the Macedonian Renaissance)
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Chanters singing on the kliros at the Church of St. George, Patriarchate of Constantinople
An illustration of the traditional interior of an Orthodox church.
Shards of pottery vases on the street, after being thrown from the windows of nearby houses. A Holy Saturday tradition in Corfu.
An Eastern Orthodox baptism
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The wedding of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
Eastern Orthodox subdeacon being ordained to the diaconate. The bishop has placed his omophorion and right hand on the head of the candidate and is reading the Prayer of Cheirotonia.
The consecration of the Rt Rev. Reginald Heber Weller as an Anglican bishop at the Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in the Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac, with the Rt. Rev. Anthony Kozlowski of the Polish National Catholic Church and Saint Tikhon, then Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska (along with his chaplains Fr. John Kochurov and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich) of the Russian Orthodox Church present
Pope Francis and Patriarch Bartholomew I in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 2014
The Constantinople Massacre of April 1821: a religious persecution of the Greek population of Constantinople under the Ottomans. Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople was executed.
The Pan-Orthodox Council, Kolymvari, Crete, Greece, June 2016
Cathedral of Evangelismos, Alexandria
Patriarchate of Peć in Kosovo, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century when its status was upgraded into a patriarchate
Traditional Paschal procession by Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church
Greek Orthodox massacred during the Greek Genocide in Smyrna in 1922.

There was also a similar, albeit smaller scale, split in Syria (Patriarchate of Antioch), which resulted in the separation of the Syriac Orthodox Church from the Byzantine Patriarchate of Antioch.

In 2007, Metropolitan Alfeyev expressed the possibility of peaceful coexistence between Islam and Christianity in Russia, as the two religions have never had religious wars in Russia.

Door of the Schlosskirche (castle church) in Wittenberg to which Luther is said to have nailed his 95 Theses on 31st October 1517, sparking the Reformation

Christian denomination

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Door of the Schlosskirche (castle church) in Wittenberg to which Luther is said to have nailed his 95 Theses on 31st October 1517, sparking the Reformation
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity that comprises all church congregations of the same kind, identifiable by traits such as a name, particular history, organization, leadership, theological doctrine, worship style and sometimes a founder.

Following the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the next large split came with the Syriac and Coptic churches dividing themselves, with the dissenting churches becoming today's Oriental Orthodox.

Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).

Christology

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Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).
Christ Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515
The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).

In Christianity, Christology (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia), translated literally from Greek as "the study of Christ", is a branch of theology that concerns Jesus.

Most of the major branches of Western Christianity (Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and Reformed), Church of the East, Eastern Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy subscribe to the Chalcedonian Christological formulation, while many branches of Oriental Orthodox Churches (Syrian Orthodoxy, Coptic Orthodoxy, Ethiopian Orthodoxy, and Armenian Apostolicism) reject it.

Syriac language

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Aramaic dialect that emerged during the first century AD from a local Aramaic dialect that was spoken by Assyrians in the ancient region of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa.

Aramaic dialect that emerged during the first century AD from a local Aramaic dialect that was spoken by Assyrians in the ancient region of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa.

An 11th-century Syriac manuscript
Syriac alphabet
Late Syriac text, written in Madnhāyā script, from Thrissur, India (1799)
Lord's Prayer in Syriac language
Ancient mosaic from Edessa (from the 2nd century CE) with inscriptions in early Edessan Aramaic (Old Syriac)
Syriac "Codex Ambrosianus" (F. 128) from the 11th century
Bilingual Syriac and Neo-Persian psalter, in Syriac script, from the 12th-13th century
Although once a major language in the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia, Syriac is now limited to the towns and villages in the Nineveh Plains, Tur Abdin, the Khabur plains, in and around the cities of Mosul, Erbil and Kirkuk.
Modern distribution of Neo-Aramaic languages, including Neo-Syriac groups
Īšoˁ, the Syriac pronunciation of the Hebrew and Aramaic name of Jesus, Yeshuʿ (ישוע)
Linguistic homeland of Edessan Aramaic: Kingdom of Osroene between Romans and Parthians, in the 1st century AD
A warning sign in Mardin, Turkey: šeṯqā, b-ḇāʿū (ܫܬܩܐ ܒܒܥܘ, 'Silence, please') in Syriac and Lütfen! Sessiz olalım! ('Please! Let's be quiet!') in Turkish.

Already from the first and second centuries AD, the inhabitants of the region of Osroene began to embrace Christianity, and by the third and fourth centuries, local Edessan Aramaic language became the vehicle of the specific Christian culture that came to be known as the Syriac Christianity.

Because of theological differences, Syriac-speaking Christians diverged during the 5th century into the Church of the East that followed the East Syriac Rite under the Persian rule, and the Syriac Orthodox Church that followed the West Syriac Rite under the Byzantine rule.

Thomas Aquinas from Valle Romita Polyptych by Gentile da Fabriano

Christian theology

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Thomas Aquinas from Valle Romita Polyptych by Gentile da Fabriano
Rembrandt's The Evangelist Matthew Inspired by an Angel, 1661
Christ in Gethsemane, Heinrich Hofmann, 1890
"Holy Trinity" from the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, by Andrei Rublev, c. 1400, but more properly known as the "Hospitality of Abraham." The three angels symbolize the Trinity.
The various Christological positions, and their names
Jesus, believed to be both man and God, painting by Carl Heinrich Bloch
A depiction of Jesus and Mary, the Theotokos of Vladimir (12th century)
Holy Doors from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, depicting the Annunciation, c. 12th century
The Resurrection of Christ by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1875.
Statue of the Fallen Angel, Retiro Park (Madrid, Spain).
Dante and Beatrice gaze upon the highest heavens; from Gustave Doré's illustrations to the Divine Comedy.
Hell as depicted in Hieronymus Bosch's triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights (c. 1504).
A Sistine Chapel fresco depicts the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden for their sin of eating from the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.
Augustine of Hippo wrote that original sin is transmitted by concupiscence and enfeebles freedom of the will without destroying it.
Christ with the Eucharist by Vicente Juan Masip, 16th century.
Detail from the Last Judgement by Michelangelo

Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.

Most of the major branches of Christianity—Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, and Reformed—subscribe to the Chalcedonian Christological formulation, while many branches of Eastern Christianity—Syrian Orthodoxy, Assyrian Church, Coptic Orthodoxy, Ethiopian Orthodoxy, and Armenian Apostolicism—reject it.

Assyrian people

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Ethnic group indigenous to Assyria, a region located in the Middle East.

Ethnic group indigenous to Assyria, a region located in the Middle East.

Part of the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, c. 645–635 BC
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Map of Asōristān (226–637 AD)
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Assyrian Mar Toma Church in Urmia, Iran.
Assyrian Church of Our Virgin Lady in Baghdad.
Aramaic language and Syriac Christianity in the Middle East and Central Asia until being largely annihilated by Tamerlane in the 14th century
Mar Elias (Eliya), the Nestorian bishop of the Urmia plain village of Geogtapa, c. 1831
A massacre of Armenians and Assyrians in the city of Adana, Ottoman Empire, April 1909
Assyrian flag, c. 1920
The burning of bodies of Assyrian women
Assyrian troops led by Agha Petros (saluting) with a captured Turkish banner in the foreground, 1918
Assyrian refugees on a wagon moving to a newly constructed village on the Khabur River in Syria
Three Assyrian Iraqi Levies, who volunteered in 1946 for service as ground crew with the Royal Air Force, look over the side of the ORBITA as it pulls into the docks at Liverpool. Left to right, they are: Sergeant Macko Shmos, Lance Corporal Adoniyo Odisho and Corporal Yoseph Odisho.
Celebration at a Syriac Orthodox monastery in Mosul, early 20th century
Assyrian Genocide Memorial in Yerevan, Armenia
The Assyro-Chaldean Delegation's map of an independent Assyria, presented at the Paris Peace Conference 1919
Map depicting Assyrian relocation after Seyfo in 1914
Syriac-Aramean flag
Chaldean flag (published in 1999)
Proximity between Roman Syria and Mesopotamia in the 1st century AD (Alain Manesson Mallet, 1683)
Assyrian child dressed in traditional clothes
The Assyrian dialects
Historical divisions within Syriac Christian Churches in the Middle East
Traditional clothing may be worn for Assyrian folk dance.
Folk dance in an Assyrian party in Chicago
Typical Assyrian cuisine
Mor Hananyo Monastery: is an important Syriac Orthodox monastery in Tur Abdin, Turkey.
Mar Assia al-Hakim Church: is a Syriac Catholic Church in Al-Jdayde quarter of Aleppo, Syria.<ref>{{cite web|title=Qenshrin.com: Guide to the Christian congregations in Aleppo (in Arabic) |url=http://www.qenshrin.com/christian/numbers/alp/index.html |archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/5vffAfHAe?url=http://www.qenshrin.com/christian/numbers/alp/index.html |archive-date=2011-01-12 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Rabban Hormizd Monastery: is an important monastery of the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Church of the East in Alqosh, Iraq.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Leroy |first1=Jules |last2=Collin |first2=Peter |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rzDqR7xjKoUC&pg=PA165 |title=Monks and Monasteries of the Near East |year=2004 |isbn=978-1-59333-276-1 |pages=166–167}}</ref>
Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows: is a Chaldean Catholic cathedral in Baghdad, Iraq
Saint Mary Church: is an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
Assyrian security forces patrolling the streets of Bakhdida after its liberation from ISIS on Oct. 22, 2016

Assyrians are predominantly Christian, mostly adhering to the East and West Syriac liturgical rites of Christianity.

The churches that constitute the East Syriac rite include the Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Church of the East, and the Ancient Church of the East, whereas the churches of the West Syriac rite are the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Syriac Catholic Church.

Greek Christians in 1922, fleeing their homes from Kharput to Trebizond. In the 1910s and 1920s the Armenian, Greek, and Assyrian genocides were perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire.

Persecution of Christians

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The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.

The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.

Greek Christians in 1922, fleeing their homes from Kharput to Trebizond. In the 1910s and 1920s the Armenian, Greek, and Assyrian genocides were perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire.
Death of Saint Stephen, "the Protomartyr", recounted in Acts 7, depicted in an engraving by Gustave Doré (published 1866)
Crucifixion of Saint Peter by Caravaggio (1600, Cerasi Chapel)
A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki (1897, National Museum, Warsaw) A Christian woman is martyred under Nero in this re-enactment of the myth of Dirce
The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1863–1883, Walters Art Museum). A fanciful scene of damnatio ad bestias in ancient Rome's Circus Maximus beneath the Palatine Hill.
Woodcut illustration for the 1570 edition of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs showing the "persecutions of the primitive Church under the heathen tyrants of Rome" and depicting the "sundry kinds of torments devised against the Christians"
Execution of Ignatius of Antioch, reputed to have been killed in Rome under the emperor Trajan, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II, an illuminated manuscript prepared for the emperor Basil II in c. 1000
Execution of Saint Barbara, reputed to have been killed under the emperor Diocletian, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II
The execution of the patriarch Peter of Alexandria under the emperor Maximinus Daia, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II
The execution of the martyrs Luke the Deacon, Mocius the Reader, and Silvanus, bishop of Emesa, reputed to have been killed under the emperor Maximinus Daia, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II
Roderick is venerated as one of the Martyrs of Córdoba
Miniature depicting the execution of the patriarch Euthymius of Sardis under the Byzantine Emperor Michael II, from an illuminated manuscript of the Madrid Skylitzes (12th century).
Raid on the Monastery of Zobe and the death of hegumenos Michael and his 36 brothers, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II.
Persecution of the Servants of Christ by Maerten de Vos and engraved by Hieronymus Wierix (Wellcome Library). An illustration of the prophecy of persecution made during the Sermon on the Mount according to the Gospel of Luke."But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's sake."
An 1858 illustration from the French newspaper, Le Monde Illustré, of the torture and execution of Father Auguste Chapdelaine, a French missionary in China, by slow slicing (Lingchi).
September Massacres, 1792
Mass shootings at Nantes, 1793
The Christian martyrs of Nagasaki. 17th-century Japanese painting.
The Jamalabad fort route. Mangalorean Catholics had traveled through this route on their way to Seringapatam.
The British officer James Scurry, who was detained a prisoner for 10 years by Tipu Sultan along with the Mangalorean Catholics
Christian martyrs burned at the stake by Ranavalona I in Madagascar
Corpses of massacred Armenian Christians in Erzurum in 1895
Adana massacre of 1909
Greek-Orthodox metropolises in Asia Minor, ca. 1880. Since 1923 only the Metropolis of Chalcedon retains a small community.
The Assyrian genocide was a mass slaughter of the Assyrian population.
Demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour on 5 December 1931: The USSR's official state atheism resulted in the 1921–1928 anti-religious campaign, during which many "church institution[s] at [the] local, diocesan or national level were systematically destroyed."
In this 1926 cartoon, the Ku Klux Klan chases the Roman Catholic Church, personified by St Patrick, from the shores of America.
St. Teodora de la Sihla Church in Central Chișinău was one of the churches that were "converted into museums of atheism", under the doctrine of Marxist–Leninist atheism.
Muslim countries where the death penalty for the crime of apostasy is in force or has been proposed as of 2013. Many other Muslim countries impose a prison term for apostasy or they prosecute it under blasphemy or other laws.
The Cemetery of the seven monks of Tibhirine
"Non-Muslim Bypass:" Non-Muslims are barred from entering Mecca and Medina.

Christian missionaries and converts to Christianity have both been targeted for persecution, sometimes to the point of being martyred for their faith, ever since the emergence of Christianity.

According to the tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Muslim conquest of the Levant was a relief for Christians oppressed by the Western Roman Empire.

Christological spectrum 5th–7th centuries (Miaphysitism in red)

Miaphysitism

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Christological spectrum 5th–7th centuries (Miaphysitism in red)

Miaphysitism is the Christological doctrine upheld by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, which include the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, and the Armenian Apostolic Church.

While historically a major point of controversy within Christianity, several modern declarations by both Chalcedonian and Miaphysite churches state that the difference between the two Christological formulations does not reflect any significant difference in belief about the nature of Christ.

Assyria

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Major ancient Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC and then as a territorial state and eventually an empire from the 14th century BC to the 7th century BC.

Major ancient Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC and then as a territorial state and eventually an empire from the 14th century BC to the 7th century BC.

Map showing the ancient Assyrian heartland (red) and the extent of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 7th century BC (orange)
Map showing the ancient Assyrian heartland (red) and the extent of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 7th century BC (orange)
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Head of a female figure, dating to the Akkadian period (c. undefined 2334–2154 BC), found at Assur
Ruins of the Old Assyrian trading colony at Kültepe
Partial relief of Tiglath-Pileser III ((r. undefined – undefined)745–727 BC), under whom the Neo-Assyrian Empire was consolidated, centralized and significantly expanded
Detail of a stele in the style of the Neo-Assyrian royal steles erected in Assur in the 2nd century AD (under Parthian rule) by the local ruler Rʻuth-Assor
Line-drawing of a royal seal of the Old Assyrian king Erishum I ((r. undefined – undefined)c. undefined 1974–1934 BC). The seated ruler is thought to represent the god Ashur, with Erishum being the bald figure being led towards him.
Stele of the Neo-Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II ((r. undefined – undefined)883–859 BC)
Ruins of one of the entrances of the Northwest Palace at Nimrud (Assyrian capital 879–706 BC), destroyed by the Islamic State in 2015
Stele of Bel-harran-beli-usur, a palace herald, made in the reign of the Neo-Assyrian king Shalmaneser IV ((r. undefined – undefined)783–773 BC)
Stele of Ili-ittija, governor of Libbi-ali, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, Ekallatum, Itu, and Ruqahu, c. undefined 804 BC
20th-century illustration of a Neo-Assyrian spearman
Neo-Assyrian relief depicting some Assyrian individuals in a procession
Relief depicting Naqi'a, mother of Esarhaddon ((r. undefined – undefined)681–669 BC) and one of the most influential women in Assyrian history
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet from Kültepe recording the repayment of a loan, impressed with four different cylinder seals
7th-century BC relief depicting Ashurbanipal ((r. undefined – undefined)669–631 BC) and two royal attendants
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet containing an account of a caravan journey
9th-century AD piece of papyrus with Syriac language writing
19th-century reconstruction of Nineveh (Assyrian capital 705–612 BC)
20th-century illustration of decorative patterns found in ancient Assyrian reliefs and garments
Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing a portion of the Epic of Gilgamesh
Early 20th-century archbishop of the Assyrian Church of the East with entourage
Statue of a praying woman, 25th century BC
Wall relief probably depicting Ashur, 21st–16th century BC
Cylinder seal and impression, 14th–13th century BC
Temple altar of Tukulti-Ninurta I, 13th century BC
Statue of a nude woman, 11th century BC
Glazed tile depicting a king and attendants, 9th century BC
The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 9th century BC
Statue of Shalmaneser III, 9th century BC
Furniture ornament, 9th–8th century BC
Crown of Queen Hama, 8th century BC
Giant lamassu, 8th century BC
Portion of the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, 7th century BC

Though the ancient Akkadian language and cuneiform script did not survive for long in Assyria after the empire was destroyed in 609 BC, Assyrian culture clearly did; the old Assyrian religion continued to be practised at Assur until the 3rd century AD, and at other sites for centuries thereafter, gradually losing ground to Christianity.

Though the prominent Assyrian Church of the East, the followers of which have often been termed "Nestorians", continues to exist, other prominent eastern churches include the Chaldean Catholic Church, which split off in the 16th century, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, and the Ancient Church of the East, which branched off from the Assyrian Church of the East in 1968.