Christianity

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Various depictions of Jesus
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
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A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches

Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

- Christianity
An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

305 related topics

Alpha

A 'Jesus Saves' neon cross sign outside of a Protestant church in New York City

Salvation in Christianity

A 'Jesus Saves' neon cross sign outside of a Protestant church in New York City

In Christianity, salvation (also called deliverance or redemption) is the "saving [of] human beings from sin and its consequences, which include death and separation from God" by Christ's death and resurrection, and the justification following this salvation.

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.

Abrahamic religions

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.
A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll
Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible
A cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921), the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival
Coronation of Haile Selassie of Abyssinia in 1928.
Samaritan High Priest with the Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)
The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
The word God written in Arabic
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1877)

Abrahamic religions are those that worship the God of Abraham, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).

Arabs

Ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

Ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Age of the Caliphs
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
A map of the Arab world
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco

However, some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism and a few individuals, known as the hanifs, apparently observed another form of monotheism.

Pope Francis in 2021

Pope

Bishop of Rome (or historically the patriarch of Rome ), head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and also serves as head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State since the eighth century.

Bishop of Rome (or historically the patriarch of Rome ), head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and also serves as head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State since the eighth century.

Pope Francis in 2021
Gregory the Great (c. 540–604) who established medieval themes in the Church, in a painting by Carlo Saraceni, c. 1610, Rome.
A historical map of the Mediterranean states in 1400. The Western Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417.
As part of the Catholic Reformation, Pope Paul III (1534–49) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–63), which established the triumph of the papacy over those who sought to reconcile with Protestants or oppose papal claims.
The Delivery of the Keys painted by Pietro Perugino (1492)
The conclave in Konstanz where Pope Martin V was elected
The formal declaration of "Habemus Papam" after the election of Pope Martin V
Funeral of Pope John Paul II at the Vatican in April 2005, presided over by Cardinal Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI
Entrance to Vatican City, with inscription "Benedictus XVI Pont(ifex) Max(imus) Anno Domini MMV Pont(ificatus) I.", i.e., "Benedict XVI, Pontifex Maximus, in the year of Our Lord 2005, the first year of his pontificate."
The coat of arms of the Holy See. That of the State of Vatican City is the same except that the positions of the gold and silver keys are interchanged.
1881 illustration depicting papal infallibility
Pope Pius XII, wearing the traditional 1877 Papal tiara, is carried through St. Peter's Basilica on a sedia gestatoria c. 1955.
Pope Pius VII, bishop of Rome, seated, and Cardinal Caprara.
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler
Antichristus, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, from Luther's 1521 Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist. The pope is signing and selling indulgences.
Christus, by Lucas Cranach. This woodcut of John 13:14–17 is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist. Cranach shows Jesus kissing Peter's foot during the footwashing. This stands in contrast to the opposing woodcut, where the pope demands others kiss his foot.
Antichristus, by the Lutheran Lucas Cranach the Elder. This woodcut of the traditional practice of kissing the pope's foot is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist.
Pope Pius IX, the pope with the longest verifiable reign
Pope Urban VII, the shortest-reigning pope

In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied, especially in the East, to all bishops and other senior clergy, and later became reserved in the West to the bishop of Rome during the reign of Pope Leo I (440–461), a reservation made official only in the 11th century.

Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit

Pentecostalism

Protestant Charismatic Christian movement that emphasizes direct personal experience of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit.

Protestant Charismatic Christian movement that emphasizes direct personal experience of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit.

Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit
The Apostolic Faith Mission on Azusa Street, now considered to be the birthplace of Pentecostalism
William Seymour, leader of the Azusa Street Revival
Women in a Pentecostal worship service
Filadelfiakyrkan ('the Philadelphia Church') in Stockholm, Sweden, is part of the Swedish Pentecostal Movement
Members of the Pentecostal Church of God in Lejunior, Kentucky pray for a girl in 1946
Dmanisi Pentecostal Church in Georgia
A Pentecostal church in Jyväskylä, Finland
A Pentecostal congregation in Brazil
Pentecostals pray in tongues at an Assemblies of God church in Cancún, Mexico
Hillsong Church, a Pentecostal mega church in Sydney, Australia, known for its contemporary worship music
Pentecostals worshiping in Slovakia
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany
A modern Pentecostal church in Seinäjoki, Finland
Pentecostal pastors pray over the Colombian flag.
This Pentecostalist centre of worship has incorporated a populist label into its name, the Peoples Church Dublin City
Pentecostal worshippers belonging to the Christian Congregation in Brazil, with women wearing modest dress and headcoverings

This doctrine is centered on the teaching of Christian faith as a means to enrich oneself financially and materially, through a "positive confession" and a contribution to Christian ministries.

Huldrych Zwingli as depicted by Hans Asper in an oil portrait from 1531; Kunstmuseum Winterthur.

Restorationism

Huldrych Zwingli as depicted by Hans Asper in an oil portrait from 1531; Kunstmuseum Winterthur.
James Robinson Graves
1839 Methodist camp meeting, watercolor from the Second Great Awakening.
Thomas Campbell
Barton W. Stone
Alexander Campbell
John Thomas
Joseph Smith
William Miller
Charles Russell in 1911
John Nelson Darby
Watchman Nee

Restorationism (or Restitutionism or Christian primitivism) is the belief that Christianity has been or should be restored along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church, which restorationists see as the search for a purer and more ancient form of the religion.

After the miraculous catch of fish, Christ invokes his disciples to become "fishers of men" by Raphael

Christians

After the miraculous catch of fish, Christ invokes his disciples to become "fishers of men" by Raphael
The Church of Saint Peter near Antioch (modern-day Antakya), the city where the disciples were called "Christians".
The Latin cross and Ichthys symbols, two symbols often used by Christians to represent their religion
Nazareth is described as the childhood home of Jesus. Many languages employ the word "Nazarene" as a general designation for those of Christian faith.
Japanese Christians ("Kurisuchan") in Portuguese costume, 16–17th century
Percentage of Christians worldwide, June 2014

Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

Page from the Gospel of Judas

Gnosticism

Collection of religious ideas and systems which coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Jewish and early Christian sects.

Collection of religious ideas and systems which coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Jewish and early Christian sects.

Page from the Gospel of Judas
Mandaean Beth Manda (Mashkhanna) in Nasiriyah, southern Iraq in 2016; place of worship for the only surviving Gnostic religion from antiquity.
A lion-faced deity found on a Gnostic gem in Bernard de Montfaucon's L'antiquité expliquée et représentée en figures may be a depiction of Yaldabaoth, the Demiurge; however, cf. Mithraic Zervan Akarana
Mandaeans in prayer during baptism.
Manicheanism priests writing at their desks, with panel inscription in Sogdian. Manuscript from Khocho, Tarim Basin.
In Sufism, Iblis rules the material world in a manner that resembles the Gnostic Demiurge.

According to Turner, Sethianism was influenced by Christianity and Middle Platonism, and originated in the second century as a fusion of a Jewish baptizing group of possibly priestly lineage, the so-called Barbeloites, named after Barbelo, the first emanation of the Highest God, and a group of Biblical exegetes, the Sethites, the "seed of Seth".

Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne

Last Judgment

Part of the Abrahamic religions and the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

Part of the Abrahamic religions and the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

Stefan Lochner, Last Judgement, c. 1435. Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Print of the Last Judgment, made by Johannes Wierix in the 16th century.
The Last Judgment by John Martin (1854)
The Last Judgment mosaic (14th-century), south facade of Saint Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Czech Republic.
The Last Judgment, Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (1536-1541)
The Last Judgment, 17th-century icon from Lipie. Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland.
The Last Judgment, mural from Voroneț Monastery, Romania
Viktor Vasnetsov's The Last Judgment, 1904
William Blake's The Day of Judgment printed in 1808 to illustrate the Robert Blair's poem "The Grave"
Doom painting, St Mary's Church, North Leigh, Oxfordshire, 15th century
Armenian manuscript depicts the Last Judgment,1679
Last Judgment (Russia, 18th century)
Diagram of "Plain of Assembly" (Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from an autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell), and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).

Christianity considers the Second Coming of Jesus Christ to be the final and infinite judgment by God of the people of every nation, Catholic Encyclopedia: General Judgment: "Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the general judgment. To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (93-231700-6 register Holy BIBLE service name number Jermaine Thomas McCoy 93-231700-6 ), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment by the Fathers. In the New Testament the Parousia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine. The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances ( sqq.;SGT john 1:18 Parish all world threw Justice hall Dean Jermaine Thomas McCoy sqq.).

Jesus represented as the Lamb of God (Agnus Dei), a common practice in Western Christianity

Western Christianity

Jesus represented as the Lamb of God (Agnus Dei), a common practice in Western Christianity
St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the largest church building in the world today.
Timeline of the evolution of the church, beginning with early Christianity
Title page of the Lutheran Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae.
Jesuit scholars in China. Top: Matteo Ricci, Adam Schaal and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–88); Bottom: Paul Siu (Xu Guangqi), Colao or Prime Minister of State, and his granddaughter Candide Hiu
Map of Europe showing the largest religions by region. Eastern Christianity is represented in blue, Islam in green, and the other colors represent branches of Western Christianity.
Saint Thomas Aquinas was one of the great Western scholars of the Medieval period.
Major branches and movements within Protestantism.

Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity (Eastern Christianity being the other).