Christianity

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Various depictions of Jesus
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
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A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches

Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

- Christianity
An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

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The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

Islam

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

It is the world's second-largest religion behind Christianity, with more than two billion followers comprising around 25 percent of the global population.

Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, 1876 painting by Vasily Surikov

Council of Chalcedon

The fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church.

The fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church.

Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, 1876 painting by Vasily Surikov
Council of Chalcedon
Spectrum of Christological views in late antiquity
Council of Chalcedon in the Nuremberg Chronicle

This disagreement would later inform the separation of the Oriental Orthodox Churches from the rest of Christianity, and led to the Council being regarded as "Chalcedon, the Ominous".

Raphael's famous 1518 depiction of Prophet Ezekiel's vision of God the Father in glory

God the Father

Raphael's famous 1518 depiction of Prophet Ezekiel's vision of God the Father in glory
A figurative drawing of God, in the old German prayer books (Waldburg-Gebetbuch), about 1486
An image of God the Father by Julius Schnorr, 1860
God the Father, Cima da Conegliano, c. 1510–1517
A depiction of the Trinity consisting of God the Father along with God the Son (Jesus) and God the Holy Spirit
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' depiction of God the Father and the Son Jesus
Depiction of God the Father (detail), Pieter de Grebber, 1654
Central Italian School 16th century Head of God the Father

God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.

Christ Pantocrator, detail of the Deesis mosaic in Hagia Sophia – Constantinople (Istanbul) 12th century

Eastern Christianity

Christ Pantocrator, detail of the Deesis mosaic in Hagia Sophia – Constantinople (Istanbul) 12th century
An Eastern Catholic bishop of the Syro-Malabar Church holding the Mar Thoma Cross which symbolizes the heritage and identity of the Saint Thomas Christians of India
The Church of the Cross of the Lord is located in Kremenets and is part of the Ukrainian Lutheran Church, which uses the Byzantine Rite.

Eastern Christianity comprises Christian traditions and church families that originally developed during classical and late antiquity in Western Asia, Northeast Africa, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Malabar coast of South Asia, and parts of the Far East.

Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria

Syriac Orthodox Church

Oriental Orthodox church that branched from the Church of Antioch.

Oriental Orthodox church that branched from the Church of Antioch.

Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria
Interior of St. Stephen Church, Gütersloh.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
Sayfo Monument at St. Peters & St. Pauls Church, Hallunda.
Damage to exterior of St. Mary Church of the Holy Belt during the Syrian Civil War.
Ignatius Aphrem II, current Patriarch of Antioch.
Peshitto Bible at Mor Hananyo Monastery.
Icon of the Virgin Mary by St. Luke the Evangelist.
Celebration of Mass at St. John's Church, Stuttgart, Germany.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
Altar of St.Mary's Knanaya Syriac Church Kottayam.
Head Office of The Evangelistic Association Of The East.
Mor Gabriel Monastery, Midyat, Turkey
St. Awgin Monastery, Nusaybin, Turkey
St. George's Monastery, Malekurish
St. Ignatius Monastery, Manjinikkara
Mor Hananyo Monastery
Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt
St. Sharbel Church Midyat
St. Mary's Church, Bethlehem
St. Mary's Cathedral, Manarcad
Tomb of St. Baselios Yeldo
St. Ephrem Church Vienna, Austria
St. Thomas Cathedral, Acton, London, England
St. Jacob of Sarug Monastery Warburg, Germany
Church of Our Lady, Amsterdam, Netherlands
St. Avgin Monastery, Arth, Switzerland
St. Aphrem Cathedral, Södertälje, Sweden

The supreme head of the Syriac Orthodox Church is named Patriarch of Antioch, in reference to his titular pretense to one of the five patriarchates of the Pentarchy of Byzantine Christianity.

John of Damascus

Eastern Orthodoxy

John of Damascus
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Our Lady of Tinos is the major Marian shrine in Greece
The Theotokos of Vladimir, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary
Last Judgment: 12th-century Byzantine mosaic from Torcello Cathedral
David glorified by the women of Israel from the Paris Psalter, example of the Macedonian art (Byzantine) (sometimes called the Macedonian Renaissance)
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Chanters singing on the kliros at the Church of St. George, Patriarchate of Constantinople
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Iconostasis of the Romanian People's Salvation Cathedral
Greek cross
Russian Orthodox cross
An illustration of the traditional interior of an Orthodox church.
Shards of pottery vases on the street, after being thrown from the windows of nearby houses. A Holy Saturday tradition in Corfu.
An Eastern Orthodox baptism
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The wedding of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
Eastern Orthodox subdeacon being ordained to the diaconate. The bishop has placed his omophorion and right hand on the head of the candidate and is reading the Prayer of Cheirotonia.
Eastern Orthodox population by country

Eastern Orthodoxy (or Eastern Orthodox Christianity) is one of the three main branches of Christianity, alongside Catholicism and Protestantism.

Saint John indicating Christ to Saint Andrew by Ottavio Vannini, 17th century

Jesus in Christianity

Saint John indicating Christ to Saint Andrew by Ottavio Vannini, 17th century
First page of Mark, by Sargis Pitsak (14th century): "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God".
Nativity at Night, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans, c. 1490
The Communion of the Apostles, by Luca Signorelli, 1512
A Gospel of John, 1056
Jesus' Farewell Discourse to his eleven remaining disciples after the Last Supper, from the Maestà by Duccio.
The Good Samaritan is a painting by James Tissot. The Parable of the Good Samaritan is one of the parables of Jesus.
Jesus healing the paralytic in The Pool by Palma il Giovane, 1592
Depictions of the Resurrection of Jesus are central to Christian art (Resurrection of Christ by Raphael, 1499–1502)

In Christianity, Jesus is the Son of God and in mainstream Christian denominations he is God the Son, the second person in the Trinity.

Church emblem featuring the Agnus Dei.Stained glass at the Rights Chapel of Trinity Moravian Church, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States

Moravian Church

Church emblem featuring the Agnus Dei.Stained glass at the Rights Chapel of Trinity Moravian Church, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
Jan Hus
Jan Hus Preaching at Bethlehem Chapel in Prague by Alfons Mucha (1916)
Jan Hus at the Council of Constance by Václav Brožík
Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf preaching to people from many nations
Vogtshof in Herrnhut – administrative centre of the worldwide Moravian Church.
Portrait of a group of Moravian Church members with King George II of Great Britain, attributed to Johann Valentin Haidt, circa 1752–1754
In 1772, John Ettwein and his group of some 200 Lenape and Mohican Christians traveled west along The Great Shamokin Path from their village of Friedenshütten (Cabins of Peace) near modern Wyalusing on the North Branch Susquehanna River to their new village of Friedensstadt (City of Peace) on the Beaver River in southwestern Pennsylvania.
Mary Greenwoord was buried in Gracehill in County Antrim in 1752. Her gravestone is identical in style to hundreds of others irrespective of their gender or former status
Friedensthal Moravian Church Christiansted, St Croix, USVI founded in 1755
A Moravian church in Neudietendorf in Thuringia in Germany
A Moravian diener serves bread to fellow members of her congregation during the celebration of a lovefeast.

The Moravian Church (Moravská církev), or the Moravian Brethren, formally the Unitas Fratrum (Latin: "Unity of the Brethren"), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in Christianity, dating back to the Bohemian Reformation of the 15th century and the Unity of the Brethren (Jednota bratrská) founded in the Kingdom of Bohemia, sixty years before Luther's Reformation.

Egypt

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam, Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid

Crucifixion of Jesus

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid
A depiction of the Raising of the Cross, by Sebastiano Mazzoni, 17th century, Ca' Rezzonico
Bronzino's depiction of the crucifixion with three nails, no ropes, and a hypopodium standing support, c. 1545.
Christ on the Cross between two thieves. Illumination from the Vaux Passional, 16th century
Crucifixion, from the Buhl Altarpiece, a particularly large Gothic oil on panel painting from the 1490s.
Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, medieval illustration from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg, 12th century
Andrea di Bartolo, Way to Calvary, c. 1400. The cluster of halos at the left are the Virgin Mary in front, with the Three Marys.
A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the historical site
The dead Christ with the Virgin, John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene. Unknown painter of the 18th century
Crucifixion of Jesus on a two-beamed cross, from the Sainte Bible (1866)
Torture stake, a simple wooden torture stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
Crucifixion, seen from the Cross, by James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Christ on the Cross, by Carl Heinrich Bloch, showing the skies darkened
Bronzino's Deposition of Christ
Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (detail of the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck, c. 1432). Christ is represented as the sacrificial Lamb of God.
Detail of the countenance of Christ just dead, by José Luján Pérez, 1793, Las Palmas Cathedral
Betrayal of Christ, stained glass, Gotland, Sweden, 1240
Mateo Cerezo, Ecce Homo, 1650
Carrying the Cross fresco, Decani monastery, Serbia, 14th century
Orthodox Crucifixion icon, Athens, Greece
Crucifixion of Christ, Michelangelo, 1540
Print of the Crucifixion, made at the end of the 16th century<ref>{{Cite web|title=De Kruisiging|url=https://lib.ugent.be/viewer/archive.ugent.be:B4D16A3C-15CD-11E9-954B-23312282636C#?c=&m=&s=&cv=&xywh=-2876,-181,8131,3613|access-date=2020-09-28|website=lib.ugent.be}}</ref>
Calvary by Paolo Veronese, 16th century
From a 14th–15th century Welsh Manuscript
Pietro Lorenzetti fresco, Assisi Basilica, 1310–1329
Descent from the Cross, Rubens (1616–17)
Descent from the Cross, Raphael, 1507

However, the belief in the redemptive nature of Jesus' death predates the Pauline letters and goes back to the earliest days of Christianity and the Jerusalem church.