A report on Gospel of John and Christology

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.
Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).
Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311
Christ Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece
A Syriac Christian rendition of St. John the Evangelist, from the Rabbula Gospels
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515
Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902
The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).

Historically in the Alexandrian school of thought (fashioned on the Gospel of John), Jesus Christ is the eternal Logos who already possesses unity with the Father before the act of Incarnation.

- Christology

This secession was over Christology, the "knowledge of Christ", or more accurately the understanding of Christ's nature, for the ones who "went out" hesitated to identify Jesus with Christ, minimising the significance of the earthly ministry and denying the salvific importance of Jesus's death on the cross.

- Gospel of John
The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.

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Jesus

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Jesus (c.

Jesus (c.

Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus
A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of the Gospel of Luke
Adoration of the Shepherds by Gerard van Honthorst, 1622
The Circumcision by Giovanni Bellini, ~1500. The work depicts the circumcision of Jesus.
The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, by William Holman Hunt, 1860
The Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist, by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, 1895
Sermon on the Mount, by Carl Bloch, 1877, depicts Jesus' important discourse
The Exhortation to the Apostles, by James Tissot, portrays Jesus talking to his 12 disciples
Jesus and the rich young man by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Pompeo Batoni depicts the Parable of the Prodigal Son. Jesus told many parables during his ministry.
Jesus cleansing a leper, medieval mosaic from the Monreale Cathedral, late 12th to mid-13th centuries
The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch, 19th century
A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897
The Last Supper, depicted by Juan de Juanes, c. 1562
A depiction of the kiss of Judas and arrest of Jesus, by Caravaggio, c. 1602
Ecce homo! Antonio Ciseri's 1871 depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus to the public
Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482
Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, 1835
A 3rd century depiction of Jesus as the Good Shepherd
Judea, Galilee and neighboring areas at the time of Jesus
A 1640 edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus.
Baptism in the Jordan River, the river where Jesus was baptized
The Resurrection of Christ from a 16th-century manuscript of La Passion de Nostre Seigneur
The ethnicity of Jesus in art has been influenced by cultural settings.
The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit.
Jesus is depicted with the Alpha and Omega letters in the catacombs of Rome from the 4th century.
The name Jesus son of Mary written in Islamic calligraphy followed by Peace be upon him
The Druze maqam of Al-masih (Jesus) in As-Suwayda Governorate.
Enthroned Jesus image on a Manichaean temple banner from c. 10th-century Qocho
Jesus healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from Dura Europos in the 3rd century
The Shroud of Turin, Italy, is the best-known claimed relic of Jesus and one of the most studied artifacts in human history.
Jesus depicted as the liberator of Black slaves, on the masthead of the Abolitionist paper "The Liberator".

"Jesus Christ" is the name that the author of the Gospel of John claims Jesus gave to himself during his high priestly prayer.

Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content.

The incarnation illustrated with scenes from the Old Testaments and the Gospels, with the Trinity in the central column, by Fridolin Leiber, 19th century

Incarnation (Christianity)

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Belief that Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, also known as God the Son or the Logos , " was made flesh" by being conceived in the womb of a woman, the Virgin Mary, also known as the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer").

Belief that Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, also known as God the Son or the Logos , " was made flesh" by being conceived in the womb of a woman, the Virgin Mary, also known as the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer").

The incarnation illustrated with scenes from the Old Testaments and the Gospels, with the Trinity in the central column, by Fridolin Leiber, 19th century
The "Heavenly Trinity" joined to the "Earthly Trinity" through the incarnation of the Son - The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities, by Murillo, c. 1677

The doctrine of the incarnation, then, entails that Jesus is fully God and fully human.

The verb incarno does not occur in the Latin Bible but the term is drawn from the Gospel of John 1:14 (Vulgate), King James Version:.

The Virgin in Prayer, by Sassoferrato, c. 1650

Mary, mother of Jesus

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First-century Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph, and the mother of Jesus.

First-century Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph, and the mother of Jesus.

The Virgin in Prayer, by Sassoferrato, c. 1650
Maria Advocata (Hagiosoritissa) in Santa Maria in Via Lata (Rome), with the invocations "Source of Light", "Star of the Sea"
Maria Advocata (Hagiosoritissa) in Santa Maria in Via Lata (Rome), with the invocations "Source of Light", "Star of the Sea"
Virgin and Child with angels and Sts. George and Theodore. Icon, c. 600, from Saint Catherine's Monastery
Our Lady of Sorrows, by Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato, 17th century
Madonna on Floral Wreath by Peter Paul Rubens with Jan Brueghel the Elder, c. 1619
The Annunciation by Eustache Le Sueur, an example of 17th century Marian art. The Angel Gabriel announces to Mary her pregnancy with Jesus and offers her White Lilies.
The Virgin's first seven steps, mosaic from Chora Church, c. 12th century
A nativity scene in France. Santons featuring the Virgin Mary.
Stabat Mater by Gabriel Wuger, 1868
The Dormition: ivory plaque, late 10th–early 11th century (Musée de Cluny)
The chapel based on the claimed House of Mary in Ephesus
A mosaic from the Hagia Sophia of Constantinople (modern Istanbul), depicting Mary with Jesus, flanked by John II Komnenos (left) and his wife Irene of Hungary (right), c. 1118 AD
15th century icon of the Theotokos ("God-bearer")
Stained glass window of Jesus leaving his mother, in a Lutheran church in South Carolina
Persian miniature of Mary and Jesus
Mary shaking the palm tree for dates
Madonna of humility by Fra Angelico, c. 1430. A traditional depiction of Mary wearing blue clothes.
Village decorations during the Feast of the Assumption in Għaxaq, Malta
Mary with an inscription referencing Luke 1:46–47 in St. Jürgen (Lutheran) church in Gettorf (Schleswig-Holstein)
Miraculous Icon of Our Lady of Tartaków in Blessed Virgin Mary Church in Łukawiec.
Mary nursing the Infant Jesus. Early image from the Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, {{circa|2nd century}}
Trojeručica, a Byzantine representation of the Theotokos, ({{circa|8th century}}), in Hilandar. Serbia
Our Lady of Vladimir, a Byzantine representation of the Theotokos
{{transl|el|Theotokos Panachranta}}, from the 11th century Gertrude Psalter
Flight into Egypt by Giotto {{circa|1304}}
Lamentation by Pietro Lorenzetti, Assisi Basilica, {{circa|1310–1329}}
Black Madonna and Child, Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, Axum, Ethiopia
Chinese Madonna, St. Francis' Church, Macao
Michelangelo's Pietà (1498–99) in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Visitation, from the St Vaast Altarpiece by Jacques Daret, 1434–1435
Virgin of Guadalupe, from the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico City, 16th century
Our Lady of La Naval de Manila statue in Quezon City, Philippines, {{circa|1593}}
Adoration of the Magi, Rubens, 1634
Virgin of Montserrat from Puerto Rico, {{circa|1775-1825}}
Virgin and Child, French (15th century)
thumb|Mary outside St. Nikolai Catholic Church in Ystad 2021
A kneeling Virgin Mary pictured in the former coat of arms of Maaria
Inside of the Tomb of Mary, on the foothills of Mount of Olives, Jerusalem

The Gospel of John refers to the mother of Jesus twice, but never mentions her name. She is first seen at the wedding at Cana (John 2:1–12). The second reference has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas), and her own sister (possibly the same as Mary of Clopas; the wording is semantically ambiguous), along with the "disciple whom Jesus loved" (John 19:25–26). John 2:1–12 is the only text in the canonical gospels in which the adult Jesus has a conversation with Mary. He does not address her as "Mother" but as "Woman". In Koine Greek (the language that the Gospel of John was composed in), calling one's mother "Woman" was not disrespectful, and could even be tender. Accordingly, some versions of the Bible translate it as "Dear woman".

Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions (such as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary).

Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection) by Raphael, 1502

Resurrection of Jesus

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Christian belief that God raised Jesus on the third day after his crucifixion, starting – or restoring – his exalted life as Christ and Lord.

Christian belief that God raised Jesus on the third day after his crucifixion, starting – or restoring – his exalted life as Christ and Lord.

Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection) by Raphael, 1502
Five part resurrection icon, Solovetsky Monastery, 17th century
Resurrection of Christ, Noël Coypel, 1700, using a hovering depiction of Jesus
Germain Pilon (French, d. 1590), Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Marble, before 1572
The three Marys at the Tomb of Christ (1470) at the west portal of Konstanz Minster, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Right wing of the winged triptych at the Church of the Teutonic Order, Vienna, Austria. The artwork depicts Christ's crucifixion and burial (left), and resurrection (right).
The Chi Rho with a wreath symbolizing the victory of the Resurrection, above Roman soldiers, c. 350 AD.
Secondo Pia's 1898 negative of the image on the Shroud of Turin has an appearance suggesting a positive image. It is used as part of the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.
A rotunda in Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection"), which contains the remains of a rock-cut room that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus.
Resurrection of Christ, by Hans Memling, 15th century
Resurrection, by Luca Giordano, after 1665
Resurrection, by Hans Multscher, 1437
Resurrection, by Dieric Bouts, {{circa|1450–1460}}
Der Auferstanden, by Lucas Cranach, 1558
Piero della Francesca, 15th century
The Resurrection of Christ, {{interlanguage link|Alonso López de Herrera|es}}, {{circa|1625}}
The Resurrection (La Résurrection) – James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Resurrection of Jesus, by Anton von Werner, Berlin Cathedral
Stained glass depiction with two Marys, Lutheran Church, South Carolina
Women at the empty tomb, by Fra Angelico, 1437–1446

In the Gospel of John, Mary Magdalene found the tomb empty, and informed Peter.

Following the conversion of Constantine and the Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology, helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.

A diagram of the Trinity

Trinity

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, from trinus 'threefold') defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit, three distinct persons sharing one homoousion (essence).

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, from trinus 'threefold') defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit, three distinct persons sharing one homoousion (essence).

A diagram of the Trinity
Russian icon of the Old Testament Trinity by Andrei Rublev, between 1408 and 1425
God in the person of the Son confronts Adam and Eve, by Master Bertram (d. c. 1415)
Detail of the earliest known artwork of the Trinity, the Dogmatic or Trinity Sarcophagus, c. undefined 350 (Vatican Museums): Three similar figures, representing the Trinity, are involved in the creation of Eve, whose much smaller figure is cut off at lower right; to her right, Adam lies on the ground
The Adoration of the Trinity by Albrecht Dürer (1511): from top to bottom: Holy Spirit (dove), God the Father and the crucified Christ
The "Heavenly Trinity" joined to the "Earthly Trinity" through the Incarnation of the Son – The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities by Murillo (c. 1677).
The Glory of Saint Nicholas, by António Manuel da Fonseca. Nicholas of Myra, a participant in the First Council of Nicaea, achieves the beatific vision in the shape of the Holy Trinity.
The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 15th century
A depiction of the Council of Nicaea in AD 325, at which the Deity of Christ was declared orthodox and Arianism condemned
A Greek fresco of Athanasius of Alexandria, the chief architect of the Nicene Creed, formulated at Nicaea.
Depiction of Trinity from Saint Denis Basilica in Paris (12th century)
Father, The Holy Spirit, and Christ Crucified, depicted in a Welsh manuscript. {{circa|1390–1400}}
The Holy Trinity in an angelic glory over a landscape, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (d. 1553)
God the Father (top), and the Holy Spirit (represented by a dove) depicted above Jesus. Painting by Francesco Albani (d. 1660)
God the Father (top), the Holy Spirit (a dove), and child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (d. 1682)
Pope Clement I prays to the Trinity, in a typical post-Renaissance depiction by Gianbattista Tiepolo (d. 1770)
Atypical depiction. The Son is identified by a lamb, the Father an Eye of Providence, and the Spirit a dove, painting by Fridolin Leiber (d. 1912)
13th-century depiction of the Trinity from a Roman de la Rose manuscript

The doctrine of the Trinity was first formulated among the early Christians and fathers of the Church as they attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions.

The Gospel of John has been seen as especially aimed at emphasizing Jesus' divinity, presenting Jesus as the Logos, pre-existent and divine, from its first words: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (John 1:1).

Matthew 21:34–37 on Papyrus 104 (recto; c. AD 150).

Gospel of Matthew

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First book of the New Testament of the Bible and one of the three synoptic Gospels.

First book of the New Testament of the Bible and one of the three synoptic Gospels.

Matthew 21:34–37 on Papyrus 104 (recto; c. AD 150).
Papyrus, fragment of a flyleaf with the title of the Gospel of Matthew, ευαγγελιον κ̣ατ̣α μαθ᾽θαιον (euangelion kata Maththaion). Dated to late 2nd or early 3rd century, it is the earliest manuscript title for Matthew

Christology is the theological doctrine of Christ, "the affirmations and definitions of Christ's humanity and deity".

John, by contrast, puts the Temple incident very early in Jesus' ministry, has several trips to Jerusalem, and puts the crucifixion immediately before the Passover holiday, on the day when the lambs for the Passover meal were being sacrificed in Temple.

Walking on water

Miracles of Jesus

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The miracles of Jesus are proposed miraculous deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts.

The miracles of Jesus are proposed miraculous deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts.

Walking on water
Jesus Descends from Heaven to Visit the Americas
Healing the mother of Peter's wife
Healing the deaf mute of Decapolis
Healing the blind at birth
Healing the Paralytic at Bethesda
The Blind Man of Bethsaida
The Blind man Bartimaeus in Jericho
Healing the Centurion's servant
Christ healing an infirm woman
The man with a withered hand
Cleansing a leper
Cleansing ten lepers
Healing a man with dropsy
Healing the bleeding woman
Healing the paralytic at Capernaum
Healing in Gennesaret
Two blind men
A boy possessed by a demon
The Canaanite woman's daughter
The Gerasenes demonic
At the Synagogue in Capernaum
Christ exorcising at sunset
Exorcism of the Gerasene demoniac
Exorcising a mute
Young Man from Nain
Daughter of Jairus
Raising of Lazarus
Marriage at Cana
Calming the storm
Transfiguration
Feeding the multitude
Draught of fishes
Cursing the fig tree
Coin in the fish's mouth

In the Gospel of John, Jesus is said to have performed seven miraculous signs that characterize his ministry, from changing water into wine at the start of his ministry to raising Lazarus from the dead at the end.

The debate over whether a belief in miracles was mere superstition or essential to accepting the divinity of Christ constituted a crisis within the 19th-century church, for which theological compromises were sought.

Richard Bauckham

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Richard John Bauckham (born 22 September 1946) is an English Anglican scholar in theology, historical theology and New Testament studies, specialising in New Testament Christology and the Gospel of John.