Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection) by Raphael, 1502
Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).
Five part resurrection icon, Solovetsky Monastery, 17th century
Christ Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece
Resurrection of Christ, Noël Coypel, 1700, using a hovering depiction of Jesus
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515
Germain Pilon (French, d. 1590), Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Marble, before 1572
The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century
The three Marys at the Tomb of Christ (1470) at the west portal of Konstanz Minster, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).
Right wing of the winged triptych at the Church of the Teutonic Order, Vienna, Austria. The artwork depicts Christ's crucifixion and burial (left), and resurrection (right).
The Chi Rho with a wreath symbolizing the victory of the Resurrection, above Roman soldiers, c. 350 AD.
Secondo Pia's 1898 negative of the image on the Shroud of Turin has an appearance suggesting a positive image. It is used as part of the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.
A rotunda in Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection"), which contains the remains of a rock-cut room that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus.
Resurrection of Christ, by Hans Memling, 15th century
Resurrection, by Luca Giordano, after 1665
Resurrection, by Hans Multscher, 1437
Resurrection, by Dieric Bouts, {{circa|1450–1460}}
Der Auferstanden, by Lucas Cranach, 1558
Piero della Francesca, 15th century
The Resurrection of Christ, {{interlanguage link|Alonso López de Herrera|es}}, {{circa|1625}}
The Resurrection (La Résurrection) – James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Resurrection of Jesus, by Anton von Werner, Berlin Cathedral
Stained glass depiction with two Marys, Lutheran Church, South Carolina
Women at the empty tomb, by Fra Angelico, 1437–1446

The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provides a rich background for christological analysis, from the canonical Gospels to the Pauline Epistles.

- Christology

Following the conversion of Constantine and the Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology, helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.

- Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection) by Raphael, 1502

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Jesus

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Jesus (c.

Jesus (c.

Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus
A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of the Gospel of Luke
Adoration of the Shepherds by Gerard van Honthorst, 1622
The Circumcision by Giovanni Bellini, ~1500. The work depicts the circumcision of Jesus.
The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, by William Holman Hunt, 1860
The Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist, by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, 1895
Sermon on the Mount, by Carl Bloch, 1877, depicts Jesus' important discourse
The Exhortation to the Apostles, by James Tissot, portrays Jesus talking to his 12 disciples
Jesus and the rich young man by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Pompeo Batoni depicts the Parable of the Prodigal Son. Jesus told many parables during his ministry.
Jesus cleansing a leper, medieval mosaic from the Monreale Cathedral, late 12th to mid-13th centuries
The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch, 19th century
A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897
The Last Supper, depicted by Juan de Juanes, c. 1562
A depiction of the kiss of Judas and arrest of Jesus, by Caravaggio, c. 1602
Ecce homo! Antonio Ciseri's 1871 depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus to the public
Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482
Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, 1835
A 3rd century depiction of Jesus as the Good Shepherd
Judea, Galilee and neighboring areas at the time of Jesus
A 1640 edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus.
Baptism in the Jordan River, the river where Jesus was baptized
The Resurrection of Christ from a 16th-century manuscript of La Passion de Nostre Seigneur
The ethnicity of Jesus in art has been influenced by cultural settings.
The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit.
Jesus is depicted with the Alpha and Omega letters in the catacombs of Rome from the 4th century.
The name Jesus son of Mary written in Islamic calligraphy followed by Peace be upon him
The Druze maqam of Al-masih (Jesus) in As-Suwayda Governorate.
Enthroned Jesus image on a Manichaean temple banner from c. 10th-century Qocho
Jesus healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from Dura Europos in the 3rd century
The Shroud of Turin, Italy, is the best-known claimed relic of Jesus and one of the most studied artifacts in human history.
Jesus depicted as the liberator of Black slaves, on the masthead of the Abolitionist paper "The Liberator".

After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the early Christian Church.

Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content.

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.

Christianity

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Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

An Eastern Christian icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea (325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Various depictions of Jesus
Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, c. 1632.
The Law and the Gospel by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1529); Moses and Elijah point the sinner to Jesus for salvation.
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.
Midnight Mass at a Catholic parish church in Woodside, New York City, U.S.
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade in São José dos Campos, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention.
An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ into a wheel, Ephesus, Asia Minor.
The Bible is the sacred book in Christianity.
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic Church.
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat; Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as the state religion, in AD 301.
The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.
Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world.
Christendom by A.D. 600 after its spread to Africa and Europe from the Middle East.
An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade. Illustration by Jean Colombe from a copy of the Passages d'outremer, c. 1490.
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Michelangelo's 1498–99 Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica; the Catholic Church was among the patronages of the Renaissance.
A depiction of Madonna and Child in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut.
A Christian procession in Brazil, the country with the largest Catholic population in the world.
Trinity Sunday in Russia; the Russian Orthodox Church has experienced a great revival since the fall of communism.
The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.
Pope Francis, the current leader of the Catholic Church.
St. George's Cathedral in Istanbul: It has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople whose leader is regarded as the primus inter pares in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Holy Trinity Cathedral in Addis Ababa, the seat of the Ethiopian Orthodox.
A 6th-century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon in Hakkari, southeastern Turkey.
Saint Mary Church; an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, Iran.
A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the apostles and therefore needed to be restored.
Unitarian Church of Transylvania in Cluj-Napoca.
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A copy of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, a famous Christian apologetic work.
Christians fleeing their homes in the Ottoman Empire, circa 1922. Many Christians were persecuted and/or killed during the Armenian genocide, Greek genocide, and Assyrian genocide.
Countries with 50% or more Christians are colored purple; countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Nations with Christianity as their state religion are in blue
Distribution of Catholics
Distribution of Protestants
Distribution of Eastern Orthodox
Distribution of Oriental Orthodox
Distribution of other Christians
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
The Cenacle on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost.
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles

The Church of the East split after the Council of Ephesus (431) and Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon (451) over differences in Christology, while the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism (1054), especially over the authority of the bishop of Rome.

The creeds of various Christian denominations generally hold in common Jesus as the Son of God—the Logos incarnated—who ministered, suffered, and died on a cross, but rose from the dead for the salvation of mankind; and referred to as the gospel, meaning the "good news".

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid

Crucifixion of Jesus

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The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid
A depiction of the Raising of the Cross, by Sebastiano Mazzoni, 17th century, Ca' Rezzonico
Bronzino's depiction of the crucifixion with three nails, no ropes, and a hypopodium standing support, c. 1545.
Christ on the Cross between two thieves. Illumination from the Vaux Passional, 16th century
Crucifixion, from the Buhl Altarpiece, a particularly large Gothic oil on panel painting from the 1490s.
Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, medieval illustration from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg, 12th century
Andrea di Bartolo, Way to Calvary, c. 1400. The cluster of halos at the left are the Virgin Mary in front, with the Three Marys.
A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the historical site
The dead Christ with the Virgin, John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene. Unknown painter of the 18th century
Crucifixion of Jesus on a two-beamed cross, from the Sainte Bible (1866)
Torture stake, a simple wooden torture stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
Crucifixion, seen from the Cross, by James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Christ on the Cross, by Carl Heinrich Bloch, showing the skies darkened
Bronzino's Deposition of Christ
Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (detail of the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck, c. 1432). Christ is represented as the sacrificial Lamb of God.
Detail of the countenance of Christ just dead, by José Luján Pérez, 1793, Las Palmas Cathedral
Betrayal of Christ, stained glass, Gotland, Sweden, 1240
Mateo Cerezo, Ecce Homo, 1650
Carrying the Cross fresco, Decani monastery, Serbia, 14th century
Orthodox Crucifixion icon, Athens, Greece
Crucifixion of Christ, Michelangelo, 1540
Print of the Crucifixion, made at the end of the 16th century<ref>{{Cite web|title=De Kruisiging|url=https://lib.ugent.be/viewer/archive.ugent.be:B4D16A3C-15CD-11E9-954B-23312282636C#?c=&m=&s=&cv=&xywh=-2876,-181,8131,3613|access-date=2020-09-28|website=lib.ugent.be}}</ref>
Calvary by Paolo Veronese, 16th century
From a 14th–15th century Welsh Manuscript
Pietro Lorenzetti fresco, Assisi Basilica, 1310–1329
Descent from the Cross, Rubens (1616–17)
Descent from the Cross, Raphael, 1507

All four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, initial trial at the Sanhedrin and final trial at Pilate's court, where Jesus is flogged, condemned to death, is led to the place of crucifixion initially carrying his cross before Roman soldiers induce Simon of Cyrene to carry it, and then Jesus is crucified, entombed, and resurrected from the dead.

The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the canonical Gospels to the Pauline epistles.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.

Gospel of John

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Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.
Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311
A Syriac Christian rendition of St. John the Evangelist, from the Rabbula Gospels
Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902

It contains a highly schematic account of the ministry of Jesus, with seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus) and seven "I am" discourses (concerned with issues of the church–synagogue debate at the time of composition) culminating in Thomas' proclamation of the risen Jesus as "my Lord and my God".

This secession was over Christology, the "knowledge of Christ", or more accurately the understanding of Christ's nature, for the ones who "went out" hesitated to identify Jesus with Christ, minimising the significance of the earthly ministry and denying the salvific importance of Jesus's death on the cross.

Matthew 21:34–37 on Papyrus 104 (recto; c. AD 150).

Gospel of Matthew

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First book of the New Testament of the Bible and one of the three synoptic Gospels.

First book of the New Testament of the Bible and one of the three synoptic Gospels.

Matthew 21:34–37 on Papyrus 104 (recto; c. AD 150).
Papyrus, fragment of a flyleaf with the title of the Gospel of Matthew, ευαγγελιον κ̣ατ̣α μαθ᾽θαιον (euangelion kata Maththaion). Dated to late 2nd or early 3rd century, it is the earliest manuscript title for Matthew

At this point many people reject Jesus, and on his resurrection he sends the disciples to the gentiles.

Christology is the theological doctrine of Christ, "the affirmations and definitions of Christ's humanity and deity".

The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt

Paul the Apostle

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Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world.

Christian apostle who spread the teachings of Jesus in the first-century world.

The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt
The Conversion of Saul, fresco by Michelangelo, 1542–1545
Geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem to Rome
Conversion on the Way to Damascus (1601), by Caravaggio
The Conversion of Saint Paul on the Way to Damascus (c. 1889), by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior
Caravaggio (1571–1610), The Conversion of Saint Paul, 1600
St Paul by Peter Paul Rubens
The Apostle Paul,, Rembrandt
The house believed to be of Ananias of Damascus in Damascus
Bab Kisan, believed to be where Paul escaped from persecution in Damascus
Map of the missionary journeys of St. Paul
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515. This sermon addressed early issues in Christology.
The Preaching of Saint Paul at Ephesus by Eustache Le Sueur (1649)
Saint Paul arrested, early 1900s Bible illustration
St. Paul's Grotto in Rabat, Malta
Paul Arrives in Rome, from Die Bibel in Bildern
The Beheading of Saint Paul by Enrique Simonet, 1887
Greek Orthodox mural painting of Saint Paul
Statue of St. Paul in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran by Pierre-Étienne Monnot
Paul Writing His Epistles, painting attributed to Valentin de Boulogne, 17th century
Russian Orthodox icon of the Apostle Paul, 18th century (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi Monastery, Karelia, Russia)
Saint Paul, Byzantine ivory relief, 6th – early 7th century (Musée de Cluny)
Paul the Apostle, (16th-century) attributed to Lucas van Leyden
Statue of St. Paul (1606) by Gregorio Fernández
A statue of Paul holding a scroll (symbolising the Scriptures) and the sword (symbolising his martyrdom)
Facial composite of Saint Paul, created by experts of the Landeskriminalamt of North Rhine-Westphalia using historical sources

Paul's writings emphasized the crucifixion, Christ's resurrection and the Parousia or second coming of Christ.

Hurtado notes that Paul regarded his own Christological views and those of his predecessors and that of the Jerusalem Church as essentially similar.

Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ, when Jesus became one with God according to adoptionism

Adoptionism

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Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ, when Jesus became one with God according to adoptionism

Adoptionism, also called dynamic monarchianism, is an early Christian nontrinitarian theological doctrine, which holds that Jesus was adopted as the Son of God at his baptism, his resurrection, or his ascension.

Distinctive features of the Gospel of the Ebionites include the absence of the virgin birth and of the genealogy of Jesus; an Adoptionist Christology, in which Jesus is chosen to be God's Son at the time of his Baptism; the abolition of the Jewish sacrifices by Jesus; and an advocacy of vegetarianism.

Kyrios

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Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master".

Greek word which is usually translated as "lord" or "master".

The Gospel of John seldom uses kyrios to refer to Jesus during his ministry, but does so after the Resurrection, although the vocative kyrie (meaning sir) appears frequently.

Kyrios is a key element of the Christology of Apostle Paul.