A report on Christology

Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).
Christ Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515
The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).

Branch of theology that concerns Jesus.

- Christology
Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).

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The oldest known icon of Christ Pantocrator at Saint Catherine's Monastery. The two different facial expressions on either side emphasize Christ's dual nature as both divine and human.

Hypostatic union

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The oldest known icon of Christ Pantocrator at Saint Catherine's Monastery. The two different facial expressions on either side emphasize Christ's dual nature as both divine and human.
Composites of the two sides of the face.

Hypostatic union (from the Greek: ὑπόστασις hypóstasis, "sediment, foundation, substance, subsistence") is a technical term in Christian theology employed in mainstream Christology to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence.

A diagram of the Trinity

Trinity

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, from trinus 'threefold') defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit, three distinct persons sharing one homoousion (essence).

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Trinitas, from trinus 'threefold') defines one God existing in three coequal, coeternal, consubstantial divine persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ) and God the Holy Spirit, three distinct persons sharing one homoousion (essence).

A diagram of the Trinity
Russian icon of the Old Testament Trinity by Andrei Rublev, between 1408 and 1425
God in the person of the Son confronts Adam and Eve, by Master Bertram (d. c. 1415)
Detail of the earliest known artwork of the Trinity, the Dogmatic or Trinity Sarcophagus, c. undefined 350 (Vatican Museums): Three similar figures, representing the Trinity, are involved in the creation of Eve, whose much smaller figure is cut off at lower right; to her right, Adam lies on the ground
The Adoration of the Trinity by Albrecht Dürer (1511): from top to bottom: Holy Spirit (dove), God the Father and the crucified Christ
The "Heavenly Trinity" joined to the "Earthly Trinity" through the Incarnation of the Son – The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities by Murillo (c. 1677).
The Glory of Saint Nicholas, by António Manuel da Fonseca. Nicholas of Myra, a participant in the First Council of Nicaea, achieves the beatific vision in the shape of the Holy Trinity.
The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 15th century
A depiction of the Council of Nicaea in AD 325, at which the Deity of Christ was declared orthodox and Arianism condemned
A Greek fresco of Athanasius of Alexandria, the chief architect of the Nicene Creed, formulated at Nicaea.
Depiction of Trinity from Saint Denis Basilica in Paris (12th century)
Father, The Holy Spirit, and Christ Crucified, depicted in a Welsh manuscript. {{circa|1390–1400}}
The Holy Trinity in an angelic glory over a landscape, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (d. 1553)
God the Father (top), and the Holy Spirit (represented by a dove) depicted above Jesus. Painting by Francesco Albani (d. 1660)
God the Father (top), the Holy Spirit (a dove), and child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (d. 1682)
Pope Clement I prays to the Trinity, in a typical post-Renaissance depiction by Gianbattista Tiepolo (d. 1770)
Atypical depiction. The Son is identified by a lamb, the Father an Eye of Providence, and the Spirit a dove, painting by Fridolin Leiber (d. 1912)
13th-century depiction of the Trinity from a Roman de la Rose manuscript

The doctrine of the Trinity was first formulated among the early Christians and fathers of the Church as they attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.

History of Christianity

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The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Christians with their various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias on marble, in the National Roman Museum. One of the earliest Christian inscriptions found, it comes from the early 3rd century Vatican necropolis area in Rome. It contains the text ΙΧΘΥϹ ΖΩΝΤΩΝ ("fish of the living"), a predecessor of the Ichthys symbol.
The eastern Mediterranean region in the time of Paul the Apostle
Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century
St. Lawrence (martyred 258) before Emperor Valerianus by Fra Angelico
A folio from Papyrus 46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles
Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the early Roman catacombs, 4th century.
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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.
The ceiling mosaic of the Arian Baptistery, built in Ravenna by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great.
An Eastern Roman mosaic showing a basilica with towers, mounted with Christian crosses, 5th century, Louvre
The Church of the East during the Middle Ages
Coptic icon of St. Anthony the Great, father of Christian monasticism and early anchorite. The Coptic inscription reads ‘Ⲡⲓⲛⲓϣϯ Ⲁⲃⲃⲁ Ⲁⲛⲧⲱⲛⲓ’ ("the Great Father Anthony").
A mosaic of Justinian I in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Roderick is venerated as one of the Martyrs of Córdoba
Raid on the Monastery of Zobe and the death of hegumenos Michael and his 36 brothers, depicted in the Menologion of Basil II.
"Hospitality of Abraham", icon by Andrei Rublev; the three angels represent the Godhead according to Trinitarian Christians.
Western Europe, the Holy Roman Empire, Kievan Rus', and the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages (year 1000)
The spread of Cistercians from their original sites in Western-Central Europe during the Middle Ages
Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor at the gate of Canossa Castle in 1077, during the Investiture controversy.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusader states with their strongholds in the Holy Land at their height, between the First and the Second Crusade (1135)
St. Cyril and St. Methodius monument on Mt. Radhošť
Christianization of Kievan Rus', the first unified federation of Slavic tribes
Christianization of Moravia under the rule of Rastislav
Jan Hus defending his theses at the Council of Constance (1415), painting by the Czech artist Václav Brožík
Michelangelo's Pietà (1498–99) in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
American Discovery Viewed by Native Americans (Thomas Hart Benton, 1922). European discovery and colonization had disastrous effects on the Indigenous peoples of the Americas and their societies.
The Council in Santa Maria Maggiore church; Museo Diocesiano Tridentino, Trento
Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th-century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Philipp Spener, the founder of Pietism
Churches of the Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug
Demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow on the orders of Joseph Stalin, 5 December 1931, consistent with the doctrine of state atheism in the USSR
Pope Pius XI
Laying on of hands during a service in a neo-charismatic church in Ghana

Various Christological debates about the human and divine nature of Jesus consumed the Christian Church for three centuries, and seven ecumenical councils were called to resolve these debates.

Monophysitism

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Monophysitism ( or ) or monophysism is a Christological term derived from the Greek μόνος (monos, "alone, solitary") and φύσις (physis, a word that has many meanings but in this context means "nature").

The First Council of Nicaea depicted with Arius beneath the feet of Emperor Constantine and the bishops

Nontrinitarianism

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Form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the belief that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence .

Form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the belief that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal, coequal, and indivisibly united in one being, or essence .

The First Council of Nicaea depicted with Arius beneath the feet of Emperor Constantine and the bishops
Horus, Osiris, and Isis
Altar depicting a tricephalic god identified as Lugus

Christian apologists and other Church Fathers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, having adopted and formulated the Logos Christology, considered the Son of God as the instrument used by the supreme God, the Father, to bring the creation into existence.

Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.

Arianism

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Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.
Constantine burning Arian books, illustration from a compendium of canon law, c. 825.
Once the orthodox Trinitarians succeeded in defeating Arianism, they censored any signs that the perceived heresy left behind. This mosaic in Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna has had images of the Arian king, Theoderic, and his court removed. On some columns their hands remain.
The ceiling mosaic of the Arian Baptistery, built in Ravenna by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great.
Page from the Codex Argenteus, a 6th-century illuminated manuscript of the Gothic Bible
Arian and Chalcedonian kingdoms in 495

Arianism (, Areianismós) is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius (c.

Saint John indicating Christ to Saint Andrew by Ottavio Vannini, 17th century

Jesus in Christianity

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Son of God and in mainstream Christian denominations he is God the Son, the second person in the Trinity.

Son of God and in mainstream Christian denominations he is God the Son, the second person in the Trinity.

Saint John indicating Christ to Saint Andrew by Ottavio Vannini, 17th century
First page of Mark, by Sargis Pitsak (14th century): "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God".
Nativity at Night, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans, c. 1490
The Communion of the Apostles, by Luca Signorelli, 1512
A Gospel of John, 1056
Jesus' Farewell Discourse to his eleven remaining disciples after the Last Supper, from the Maestà by Duccio.
The Good Samaritan is a painting by James Tissot. The Parable of the Good Samaritan is one of the parables of Jesus.
Jesus healing the paralytic in The Pool by Palma il Giovane, 1592
Depictions of the Resurrection of Jesus are central to Christian art (Resurrection of Christ by Raphael, 1499–1502)

In Christology, the concept that Christ is the Logos (i.e., "The Word") has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed.

Ruins of the monastery of Mar Eliya (Iraq) in 2005. In 2014 it was destroyed by ISIS

Church of the East

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Eastern Christian church of the East Syriac Rite, based in Mesopotamia.

Eastern Christian church of the East Syriac Rite, based in Mesopotamia.

Ruins of the monastery of Mar Eliya (Iraq) in 2005. In 2014 it was destroyed by ISIS
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of The Church of the East (light blue)
The Monastery of St. Isho in Hakkari.
Saint Mary Church: an ancient Assyrian church located in the city of Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Assyrian Mar Toma church in Urmia, Iran.
A 6th century Nestorian church, St. John the Arab, in the Assyrian village of Geramon.
Ecclesiastical provinces of the Church of the East in 10th century
A 9th-century mural of a cleric of the Church of the East from the palace of al-Mukhtar in Samarra, Iraq.
Church of the East at its largest extent during the Middle Ages.
The Nestorian Stele, created in 781, describes the introduction of Nestorian Christianity to China
Mongol tribes that adopted Syriac Christianity ca. 600 – 1400
A Nestorian church (1350) in Famagusta, Cyprus.
The Monastery of Mar 'Avd-Isho in Hakkari.
The Monastery of Mar Shallita in Hakkari.
The ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery, former residence of the Patriarchs of the Church of the East.
The Patriarchal Church of Mar Shalital (Assyrian Church of the East) in Qudshanis village in Hakkâri Province (1692–1918).
Palm Sunday procession of Nestorian clergy in a 7th- or 8th-century wall painting from a church in Tang China
Fragment of a Christian figure, a late-9th-century silk painting preserved in the British Museum.
Feast of the Discovery of the Cross, from a 13th-century Nestorian Peshitta Gospel book written in Estrangela, preserved in the SBB.
An angel announces the resurrection of Christ to Mary and Mary Magdalene, from the Nestorian Peshitta Gospel.
The twelve apostles are gathered around Peter at Pentecost, from the Nestorian Peshitta Gospel.
Illustration from the Nestorian Evangelion, a Syriac gospel manuscript preserved in the BnF.
Portraits of the Four Evangelists, from a gospel lectionary according to the Nestorian use. Mosul, Iraq, 1499.
Drawing of a rider (Entry into Jerusalem), a lost wall painting from the Nestorian church at Khocho, 9th century.
Nestorian Christian relic (statuette) from Imperial China
Anikova Plate, showing the Siege of Jericho. It was probably made in and for a Sogdian Nestorian Christian community located in Semirechye
Detail of the rubbing of the Nestorian pillar of Luoyang, discovered in Luoyang. 9th century.
Detail of the rubbing of the Nestorian pillar of Luoyang, discovered in Luoyang. 9th century.

Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasises the distinction between the human and divine natures of Jesus.

Portrait of Nestorius

Nestorius

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The Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431.

The Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431.

Portrait of Nestorius
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Chalcedonian Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).

A Christian theologian, several of his teachings in the fields of Christology and Mariology were seen as controversial and caused major disputes.

Council of Ephesus

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Council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.

Council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II.

Council of Ephesus in 431, in the Basilica of Fourvière, Lyon
Cyril of Alexandria
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of The Church of the East (light blue), Miaphysite (light red) and the western churches i.e. Eastern Orthodox and Catholic (light purple)

Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology.