Christology

Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).
Christ Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515
The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).

Branch of theology that concerns Jesus.

- Christology
Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).

70 related topics

Alpha

Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.

Arianism

Imagined portrait of Arius; detail of a Cretan School icon, c. 1591, depicting the First Council of Nicaea.
Constantine burning Arian books, illustration from a compendium of canon law, c. 825.
Once the orthodox Trinitarians succeeded in defeating Arianism, they censored any signs that the perceived heresy left behind. This mosaic in Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna has had images of the Arian king, Theoderic, and his court removed. On some columns their hands remain.
The ceiling mosaic of the Arian Baptistery, built in Ravenna by the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great.
Page from the Codex Argenteus, a 6th-century illuminated manuscript of the Gothic Bible
Arian and Chalcedonian kingdoms in 495

Arianism (, Areianismós) is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius (c.

The oldest known icon of Christ Pantocrator at Saint Catherine's Monastery. The two different facial expressions on either side emphasize Christ's dual nature as both divine and human.

Chalcedonian Definition

Declaration of Christ's nature, adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451.

Declaration of Christ's nature, adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451.

The oldest known icon of Christ Pantocrator at Saint Catherine's Monastery. The two different facial expressions on either side emphasize Christ's dual nature as both divine and human.

The Chalcedonian Definition was written amid controversy between the Western and Eastern churches over the meaning of the Incarnation (see Christology).

9th century Byzantine manuscript illumination of I Constantinople. Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus, 879–883.

First Council of Constantinople

Council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I.

Council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I.

9th century Byzantine manuscript illumination of I Constantinople. Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus, 879–883.
Gregory of Nazianzus presided over part of the Council

With the discussion of Trinitarian doctrine now developed, the focus of discussion changed to Christology, which would be the topic of the Council of Ephesus of 431 and the Council of Chalcedon of 451.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.

Gospel of John

Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.
Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311
A Syriac Christian rendition of St. John the Evangelist, from the Rabbula Gospels
Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902

This secession was over Christology, the "knowledge of Christ", or more accurately the understanding of Christ's nature, for the ones who "went out" hesitated to identify Jesus with Christ, minimising the significance of the earthly ministry and denying the salvific importance of Jesus's death on the cross.

Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection) by Raphael, 1502

Resurrection of Jesus

Christian belief that God raised Jesus on the third day after his crucifixion, starting – or restoring – his exalted life as Christ and Lord.

Christian belief that God raised Jesus on the third day after his crucifixion, starting – or restoring – his exalted life as Christ and Lord.

Resurrection of Jesus Christ (Kinnaird Resurrection) by Raphael, 1502
Five part resurrection icon, Solovetsky Monastery, 17th century
Resurrection of Christ, Noël Coypel, 1700, using a hovering depiction of Jesus
Germain Pilon (French, d. 1590), Resurrection of Jesus Christ. Marble, before 1572
The three Marys at the Tomb of Christ (1470) at the west portal of Konstanz Minster, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Right wing of the winged triptych at the Church of the Teutonic Order, Vienna, Austria. The artwork depicts Christ's crucifixion and burial (left), and resurrection (right).
The Chi Rho with a wreath symbolizing the victory of the Resurrection, above Roman soldiers, c. 350 AD.
Secondo Pia's 1898 negative of the image on the Shroud of Turin has an appearance suggesting a positive image. It is used as part of the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.
A rotunda in Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection"), which contains the remains of a rock-cut room that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus.
Resurrection of Christ, by Hans Memling, 15th century
Resurrection, by Luca Giordano, after 1665
Resurrection, by Hans Multscher, 1437
Resurrection, by Dieric Bouts, {{circa|1450–1460}}
Der Auferstanden, by Lucas Cranach, 1558
Piero della Francesca, 15th century
The Resurrection of Christ, {{interlanguage link|Alonso López de Herrera|es}}, {{circa|1625}}
The Resurrection (La Résurrection) – James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Resurrection of Jesus, by Anton von Werner, Berlin Cathedral
Stained glass depiction with two Marys, Lutheran Church, South Carolina
Women at the empty tomb, by Fra Angelico, 1437–1446

Following the conversion of Constantine and the Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology, helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.

Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).

Monophysitism

Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).

Monophysitism ( or ) or monophysism is a Christological term derived from the Greek μόνος (monos, "alone, solitary") and φύσις (physis, a word that has many meanings but in this context means "nature").

''St Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch, and Confessor

Cyril of Alexandria

The Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.

The Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444.

''St Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch, and Confessor
Icon of St. Cyril of Alexandria

Nestorius argued that Mary was neither a "Mother of Man" nor "Mother of God" as these referred to Christ's two natures; rather, Mary was the "Mother of Christ" (Greek: Christotokos).

Constantine the Great summoned the bishops of the Christian Church to Nicaea to address divisions in the Church (mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), ca. 1000).

First Council of Nicaea

Council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

Council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

Constantine the Great summoned the bishops of the Christian Church to Nicaea to address divisions in the Church (mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), ca. 1000).
The synod of Nicaea, Constantine and the condemnation and burning of Arian books, illustration from a northern Italian compendium of canon law, c. 825
The Council of Nicaea, with Arius depicted as defeated by the council, lying under the feet of Emperor Constantine
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
A fresco depicting the First Council of Nicaea at the Vatican's Sixtine Salon

Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, mandating uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.

Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria

Syriac Orthodox Church

Oriental Orthodox church that branched from the Church of Antioch.

Oriental Orthodox church that branched from the Church of Antioch.

Cathedral of Saint George, Damascus, Syria
Interior of St. Stephen Church, Gütersloh.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
Sayfo Monument at St. Peters & St. Pauls Church, Hallunda.
Damage to exterior of St. Mary Church of the Holy Belt during the Syrian Civil War.
Ignatius Aphrem II, current Patriarch of Antioch.
Peshitto Bible at Mor Hananyo Monastery.
Icon of the Virgin Mary by St. Luke the Evangelist.
Celebration of Mass at St. John's Church, Stuttgart, Germany.
St. Mary Church, Diyarbakır.
Altar of St.Mary's Knanaya Syriac Church Kottayam.
Head Office of The Evangelistic Association Of The East.
Mor Gabriel Monastery, Midyat, Turkey
St. Awgin Monastery, Nusaybin, Turkey
St. George's Monastery, Malekurish
St. Ignatius Monastery, Manjinikkara
Mor Hananyo Monastery
Saint Mary Church of the Holy Belt
St. Sharbel Church Midyat
St. Mary's Church, Bethlehem
St. Mary's Cathedral, Manarcad
Tomb of St. Baselios Yeldo
St. Ephrem Church Vienna, Austria
St. Thomas Cathedral, Acton, London, England
St. Jacob of Sarug Monastery Warburg, Germany
Church of Our Lady, Amsterdam, Netherlands
St. Avgin Monastery, Arth, Switzerland
St. Aphrem Cathedral, Södertälje, Sweden

The church upholds miaphysite doctrine in Christology, and employs the Divine Liturgy of Saint James, associated with James, the brother of Jesus.

Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre), accompanied by the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325), holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381

First seven ecumenical councils

In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre), accompanied by the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325), holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic. Hagia Sophia, c. 1000).
Hagia Irene is a former church, now a museum, in Istanbul. Commissioned in the 4th century, it ranks as the first church built in Constantinople, and has its original atrium. In 381 the First Council of Constantinople took place in the church. Damaged by an earthquake in the 8th century, its present form largely dates from repairs made at that time.

Theodosius II called the council to settle the christological controversy surrounding Nestorianism.