A report on Christology

Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).
Christ Pantocrator, Holy Trinity's monastery, Meteora, Greece
Saint Paul delivering the Areopagus sermon in Athens, by Raphael, 1515
The Four Evangelists, by Pieter Soutman, 17th century
Christological spectrum during the 5th–7th centuries showing the views of the Church of the East (light blue), the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches (light purple), and the Miaphysite Churches (pink).

Branch of theology that concerns Jesus.

- Christology
Paolo Veronese, The Resurrection of Jesus Christ (ca. 1560).

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Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea of 325 with the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381

Son of God (Christianity)

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In Christianity, the title Son of God refers to the status of Jesus as the divine son of God the Father.

In Christianity, the title Son of God refers to the status of Jesus as the divine son of God the Father.

Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea of 325 with the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
First page of Mark: "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God", by Sargis Pitsak. 14th century.
The Ascension, Jesus returning to his Father – by Pietro Perugino (c. 1500), Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon

Through the centuries, the theological development of the concept of Son of God has interacted with other Christological elements such as pre-existence of Christ, Son of man, the hypostatic union, etc. For instance, in Johannine "Christology from above" which begins with the pre-existence of Christ, Jesus did not become Son of God through the virgin birth, he always was the Son of God.

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, painting by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856), Tate Britain, London

Christianity in the 1st century

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Thus also known as the Apostolic Age.

Thus also known as the Apostolic Age.

Jesus Washing Peter's Feet, painting by Ford Madox Brown (1852–1856), Tate Britain, London
The Crucifixion, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. 1745–1750, Saint Louis Art Museum
The Cenacle on Mount Zion, claimed to be the location of the Last Supper and Pentecost. Bargil Pixner claims the original Church of the Apostles is located under the current structure.
James the Just, whose judgment was adopted in the apostolic decree of
Saint Paul, by El Greco
Mediterranean Basin geography relevant to Paul's life, stretching from Jerusalem in the lower right to Rome in the upper left.
An artistic representation of St. Clement I, an Apostolic Father.
A coin issued by Nerva reads
fisci Judaici calumnia sublata,
"abolition of malicious prosecution in connection with the Jewish tax"

Scholars often draw a distinction between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith, and two different accounts can be found in this regard.

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

Calvinism

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Major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

Christ's human nature has been a point of contention between Reformed and Lutheran Christology.

Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ, when Jesus became one with God according to adoptionism

Adoptionism

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Early Christian nontrinitarian theological doctrine, which holds that Jesus was adopted as the Son of God at his baptism, his resurrection, or his ascension.

Early Christian nontrinitarian theological doctrine, which holds that Jesus was adopted as the Son of God at his baptism, his resurrection, or his ascension.

Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ, when Jesus became one with God according to adoptionism

Distinctive features of the Gospel of the Ebionites include the absence of the virgin birth and of the genealogy of Jesus; an Adoptionist Christology, in which Jesus is chosen to be God's Son at the time of his Baptism; the abolition of the Jewish sacrifices by Jesus; and an advocacy of vegetarianism.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid

Crucifixion of Jesus

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The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely in either AD 30 or AD 33.

The 17th-century painting Christ Crucified by Diego Velázquez, held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid
A depiction of the Raising of the Cross, by Sebastiano Mazzoni, 17th century, Ca' Rezzonico
Bronzino's depiction of the crucifixion with three nails, no ropes, and a hypopodium standing support, c. 1545.
Christ on the Cross between two thieves. Illumination from the Vaux Passional, 16th century
Crucifixion, from the Buhl Altarpiece, a particularly large Gothic oil on panel painting from the 1490s.
Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, medieval illustration from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad of Landsberg, 12th century
Andrea di Bartolo, Way to Calvary, c. 1400. The cluster of halos at the left are the Virgin Mary in front, with the Three Marys.
A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the historical site
The dead Christ with the Virgin, John the Evangelist and Mary Magdalene. Unknown painter of the 18th century
Crucifixion of Jesus on a two-beamed cross, from the Sainte Bible (1866)
Torture stake, a simple wooden torture stake. Image by Justus Lipsius.
Crucifixion, seen from the Cross, by James Tissot, c. 1890, Brooklyn Museum
Christ on the Cross, by Carl Heinrich Bloch, showing the skies darkened
Bronzino's Deposition of Christ
Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (detail of the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck, c. 1432). Christ is represented as the sacrificial Lamb of God.
Detail of the countenance of Christ just dead, by José Luján Pérez, 1793, Las Palmas Cathedral
Betrayal of Christ, stained glass, Gotland, Sweden, 1240
Mateo Cerezo, Ecce Homo, 1650
Carrying the Cross fresco, Decani monastery, Serbia, 14th century
Orthodox Crucifixion icon, Athens, Greece
Crucifixion of Christ, Michelangelo, 1540
Print of the Crucifixion, made at the end of the 16th century<ref>{{Cite web|title=De Kruisiging|url=https://lib.ugent.be/viewer/archive.ugent.be:B4D16A3C-15CD-11E9-954B-23312282636C#?c=&m=&s=&cv=&xywh=-2876,-181,8131,3613|access-date=2020-09-28|website=lib.ugent.be}}</ref>
Calvary by Paolo Veronese, 16th century
From a 14th–15th century Welsh Manuscript
Pietro Lorenzetti fresco, Assisi Basilica, 1310–1329
Descent from the Cross, Rubens (1616–17)
Descent from the Cross, Raphael, 1507

The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the canonical Gospels to the Pauline epistles.

Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Pella.

Ebionites

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Ebionites (, Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew (or ) ebyonim, ebionim, meaning 'the poor' or 'poor ones') as a term refers to a Jewish Christian sect, which viewed poverty as a blessing, that existed during the early centuries of the Common Era.

Ebionites (, Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew (or ) ebyonim, ebionim, meaning 'the poor' or 'poor ones') as a term refers to a Jewish Christian sect, which viewed poverty as a blessing, that existed during the early centuries of the Common Era.

Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Pella.

The Ebionites embraced an adoptionist Christology, thus understanding Jesus of Nazareth as a mere man who, by virtue of his righteousness in following the Law of Moses, was chosen by God to be the messianic "prophet like Moses".

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.

Gospel of John

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Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.
Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311
A Syriac Christian rendition of St. John the Evangelist, from the Rabbula Gospels
Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902

This secession was over Christology, the "knowledge of Christ", or more accurately the understanding of Christ's nature, for the ones who "went out" hesitated to identify Jesus with Christ, minimising the significance of the earthly ministry and denying the salvific importance of Jesus's death on the cross.

Docetism

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Heterodox doctrine that the phenomenon of Jesus, his historical and bodily existence, and above all the human form of Jesus, was mere semblance without any true reality.

Heterodox doctrine that the phenomenon of Jesus, his historical and bodily existence, and above all the human form of Jesus, was mere semblance without any true reality.

Ernst Käsemann controversially defined the Christology of the Gospel of John as "naïve docetism" in 1968.

Italo-Greek icon representing three persons of the Holy Trinity, Venice (16th century)

Prosopon

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Theological term used in Christian theology as designation for the concept of a divine person.

Theological term used in Christian theology as designation for the concept of a divine person.

Italo-Greek icon representing three persons of the Holy Trinity, Venice (16th century)

The term has a particular significance in Christian Triadology (study of the Trinity), and also in Christology.

The Eleusa style such as this Vladimir icon of the Madonna with the Child Jesus nestled against her face, has been depicted in both the Eastern and Western churches.

Mariology

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Theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus.

Theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus.

The Eleusa style such as this Vladimir icon of the Madonna with the Child Jesus nestled against her face, has been depicted in both the Eastern and Western churches.
A statue of Mary in the Lutheran church of Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune, Strasbourg
Statue of Santa Maria Assunta, in Attard, Malta

The veneration of Mary is said to permeate, in a way, the entire life of the Church as a "dimension" of dogma as well as piety, of Christology as well as of Ecclesiology.