Christopher Columbus

ColumbusColónColumbianCristóbal ColónCristoforo ColomboColumbus, ChristopherCristobal ColonChristophe ColombColomboColombus
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.wikipedia
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European colonization of the Americas

white settlersEuropean colonizationEuropean settlement
He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas.
Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what to be known to Europeans as the "New World".

Origin theories of Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus was PortugueseChristopher Columbus was, in fact, PortugueseColumbus's early life
Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars generally agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language.
The general consensus among historians is that Columbus' family was from the coastal region of Liguria, that he spent his boyhood and early youth in the Republic of Genoa, in Genoa, in Vico Diritto, and that he subsequently lived in Savona, where his father Domenico moved in 1470.

Columbus Day

Day of the AmericasDía de la Hispanidad69th Annual Columbus Day Parade
Columbus left Spain in August 1492 with three ships, and after a stopover in the Canary Islands made landfall in the Americas on 12 October (now celebrated as Columbus Day).
Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries of the Americas and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas on October 12, 1492 (Julian Calendar; it would have been October 21, 1492 on the Gregorian Proleptic Calendar, which extends the Gregorian Calendar to dates prior to its adoption in 1582).

Central America

CentralCentral AmericanCentral-
He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas.
Soon after the Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus's voyages to the Americas, the Spanish began to colonize the Americas.

Capitulations of Santa Fe

agreedexpedition sponsored by SpainSanta Fe Capitulations
After years of lobbying, the Catholic Monarchs of Spain agreed to sponsor a journey west, in the name of the Crown of Castile.
The Capitulations of Santa Fe between Christopher Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs were signed in Santa Fe, Granada on April 17, 1492.

Haiti

🇭🇹Republic of HaitiHaitian
Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies almost 500 years earlier.
Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic.

Columbian exchange

occurred with the discovery of the New Worldintroducedadvent of new culinary elements
The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange, and the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era.
The Columbian exchange, also known as the Columbian interchange, named for Christopher Columbus, was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas, West Africa, and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Guanahani

believedfirst islandfirst landfall of Christopher Columbus
His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani; its exact location is uncertain.
Guanahani is an island in the Bahamas that was the first land in the New World sighted and visited by Christopher Columbus' first voyage, on October 12, 1492.

La Navidad

a colony
Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies almost 500 years earlier.
La Navidad was a settlement that Christopher Columbus and his men established in present-day Haiti in 1492 from the remains of the Spanish ship, the Santa María.

Spice trade

spice routespicespepper trade
He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade.
Kerala, referred to as the land of spices or as the "Spice Garden of India", was the place traders and explorers wanted to reach, including Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, and others.

Pleitos colombinos

protracted litigation
Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.
The Pleitos colombinos ("Columbian lawsuits") were a long series of lawsuits that the heirs of Christopher Columbus brought against the Crown of Castile and León in defense of the privileges obtained by Columbus for his discoveries in the New World.

Trinidad

Island of TrinidadTrinidadianT'''rinidad
Columbus would make three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the eastern coast of Central America in 1502.
Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad" ("The Island of the Trinity"), fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage.

Hispaniola

Santo DomingoIsland of HispaniolaSan Domingo
Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies almost 500 years earlier.
Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493.

Genoa

GenoeseGenoveseGenova
His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper.
It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.

Italians

ItalianItalian descentItaly
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
Italian explorers and navigators in the 15th and 16th centuries left a perennial mark on human history with the modern "discovery of America", due to Christopher Columbus.

Savona

LeginoRN SavonaSavona, Italy
His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper.
One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys.

Susanna Fontanarossa

His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.
Susanna of Fontanarossa (1435-1489) was the mother of navigator and explorer Christopher Columbus.

New World

NewThe New WorldAmericas
The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange, and the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era.
One can speak of the "New World" in a historical context, e.g., when discussing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquest of Yucatán and other events of the colonial period.

Domenico Colombo

Domenego
His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper.
Domenico Colombo (English: Dominic Columbus, Genoese: Domenego Corombo) (1418–1496) was the father of navigator Christopher Columbus and Bartholomew Columbus.

Ligurian (Romance language)

LigurianLigurian languagedialect
Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars generally agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language.
Notable native speakers of Ligurian include Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Christopher Columbus, Eugenio Montale, Giulio Natta, Italo Calvino, and Fabrizio De André.

John Mandeville

Mandeville's TravelsThe Travels of Sir John MandevilleMandeville
He read widely about astronomy, geography, and history, including the works of Claudius Ptolemy, Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly's Imago Mundi, the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, Pliny's Natural History, and Pope Pius II's Historia Rerum Ubique Gestarum.
Despite the extremely unreliable and often fantastical nature of the travels it describes, it was used as a work of reference—Christopher Columbus, for example, was heavily influenced by both this work and Marco Polo's earlier Travels.

Beatriz Enríquez de Arana

Beatriz Enriquez
He had left Portugal for Castile in 1485, where he found a mistress in 1487, a 20-year-old orphan named Beatriz Enríquez de Arana.
Beatriz Enríquez de Arana (1467–1536) was the mistress of Christopher Columbus and mother of Ferdinand Columbus, Columbus's natural son, whom he recognized.

Galway

Galway cityGalway, IrelandCity of Galway
He docked in Bristol, England and Galway, Ireland.
In 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway, possibly stopping off on a voyage to Iceland or the Faroe Islands.

Republic of Genoa

GenoeseGenoaGenovese
Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars generally agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language.
Christopher Columbus, for example, was a native of Genoa and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods.

Portugal

Portuguese🇵🇹POR
Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead, from the Aragon region of Spain or from Portugal.
The Treaty of Tordesillas, intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus, was made by Pope Alexander VI, the mediator between Portugal and Spain.