Chrome OS 87 Desktop
Linus Torvalds, principal author of the Linux kernel
Chrome OS 87 Desktop
5.25-inch floppy disks holding a very early version of Linux
Samsung Chromebook
Ubuntu, a popular Linux distribution
Chromebook Pixel (Wi-Fi) open
Nexus 5X running Android
A Chromebook
In-flight entertainment system booting up displaying the Linux logo
Simplified history of Unix-like operating systems. Linux shares similar architecture and concepts (as part of the POSIX standard) but does not share non-free source code with the original Unix or MINIX.
Linux is ubiquitously found on various types of hardware.
The name "Linux" is also used for a laundry detergent made by Swiss company Rösch.

Chrome OS (sometimes styled as chromeOS) is a proprietary Linux-based operating system designed by Google.

- Chrome OS

Although Linux is used by only around 2.3 percent of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US.

- Linux

8 related topics

Alpha

Android 12 home screen with Pixel Launcher

Android (operating system)

Mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

Mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

Android 12 home screen with Pixel Launcher
Android 12 home screen with Pixel Launcher
HTC Dream or T-Mobile G1, the first commercially released device running Android (2008)
Eric Schmidt, Andy Rubin and Hugo Barra at a 2012 press conference announcing Google's Nexus 7 tablet
Frontal buttons (home, menu/options, go back, search) and optical track pad of an HTC Desire, a 2010 smartphone with Android OS.
The stack of Android Open Source Project
Android's architecture diagram
The first-generation Nexus 7 tablet, running Android 4.1 Jelly Bean
Barnes & Noble Nook running Android
Ouya, a video game console which runs Android
Android-x86 running on an ASUS Eee PC netbook

Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter also developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google.

Android comes preinstalled on a few laptops (a similar functionality of running Android applications is also available in Google's Chrome OS) and can also be installed on personal computers by end users.

ARM architecture family

Family of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

Family of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

ARM1 2nd processor for the BBC Micro
Microprocessor-based system on a chip
Die of an ARM610 microprocessor
Die of a STM32F103VGT6 ARM Cortex-M3 microcontroller with 1 MB flash memory by STMicroelectronics
Tronsmart MK908, a Rockchip-based quad-core Android "mini PC", with a microSD card next to it for a size comparison
An ARMv7 was used to power older versions of the popular Raspberry Pi single-board computers like this Raspberry Pi 2 from 2015.
An ARMv7 is also used to power the CuBox family of single-board computers.
ARMv8-A Platform with Cortex A57/A53 MPCore big.LITTLE CPU chip

In Debian Linux, and derivatives such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint, armhf (ARM hard float) refers to the ARMv7 architecture including the additional VFP3-D16 floating-point hardware extension (and Thumb-2) above.

Chrome OS

Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting

Linux kernel

Free and open-source, monolithic, modular, multitasking, Unix-like operating system kernel.

Free and open-source, monolithic, modular, multitasking, Unix-like operating system kernel.

Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting
Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting
Linus Torvalds at the LinuxCon Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf
The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software.
Map of the Linux kernel
Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace.
At XDC2014, Alex Deucher from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode driver. The proprietary Linux graphic driver, libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRM infrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blob used by Catalyst.
The Linux Storage Stack Diagram
TiVo DVR, a consumer device running Linux
An example of Linux kernel panic
An iPod booting iPodLinux
Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel
Boot messages of a Linux kernel 2.6.25.17

Since the late 1990s, it has been included as part of a large number of operating system distributions, many of which are commonly also called Linux.

2018 saw ChromeOS move to building kernels with Clang by default, while Android (operating system) made Clang and LLVM's linker LLD required for kernel builds in 2019.

Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)

MacOS

Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)
Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)
Simplified history of Unix-like operating systems
OS X logo from 2012 to 2013
macOS logo
Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors.
A Illustration of Apple's M1 processor.
The original Aqua user interface as seen in the Mac OS X Public Beta from 2000
Screenshot of OS X 10.0
Screenshot of Tiger
OS X Lion was announced at WWDC 2011 at Moscone West
A screenshot of OS X Mavericks
Screenshot of El Capitan

Within the market of desktop and laptop computers it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows and ahead of Chrome OS.

Because macOS is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the other Unix-like systems including Linux can be recompiled to run on it, including much scientific and technical software.

HP 2133 Mini-Note PC netbook

Netbook

The marketing term netbook identified small and inexpensive laptops that were sold from 2007 to around 2013; these were generally low-performance.

The marketing term netbook identified small and inexpensive laptops that were sold from 2007 to around 2013; these were generally low-performance.

HP 2133 Mini-Note PC netbook
A low-cost Craig netbook with Android.
A HP Mini 1000 netbook computer, a type of netbook computer
An Asus Eee PC 700, the first mass-produced netbook, which used a 7-inch screen.
Netbook market popularity within laptops in second half of 2008 based on the number of product clicks in the Laptop Subcategory per month by PriceGrabber
A Samsung N130, manufactured in 2010. Although Windows XP was in the process of being supplanted by its successors, Windows Vista and Windows 7, some netbook manufacturers offered the operating system alongside its successors.
Psion netBook
Samsung NC10 motherboard featuring the Intel Atom processor

Originally designed for emerging markets, the 23 x device weighed about 0.9 kg and featured a 7 in display, a keyboard approximately 85% the size of a normal keyboard, a solid-state drive and a custom version of Linux with a simplified user interface geared towards consumer use.

For Windows 8, in a ploy to counter Chrome OS-based netbooks and low-end Android tablets, Microsoft began to offer no-cost Windows licenses to OEMs for devices with screens smaller than 9 inches in size.

Samsung Series 3 Chromebook

Chromebook

Samsung Series 3 Chromebook
Samsung Series 3 Chromebook
Samsung Chromebook Series 3 with bottom panel removed
Chromebooks at a Staples retail store
A Paradise Valley Unified School District student using a Chromebook as part of the organization's pilot project
Cr-48
Chromebook Pixel (WiFi)
Pixelbook
Samsung Series 5
Samsung Series 3 Chromebook

A Chromebook (sometimes stylized in lowercase as chromebook) is a laptop or tablet running the Linux-based Chrome OS as its operating system.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.

Operating system

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.
PC DOS was an early personal computer OS that featured a command-line interface.
Mac OS by Apple Computer became the first widespread OS to feature a graphical user interface. Many of its features such as windows and icons would later become commonplace in GUIs.
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on NeXTSTEP, based on BSD.
Ubuntu, desktop Linux distribution
Linux, a unix-like operating system was first time released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Picture of Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux.
A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.
Privilege rings for the x86 microprocessor architecture available in protected mode. Operating systems determine which processes run in each mode.
Many operating systems can "trick" programs into using memory scattered around the hard disk and RAM as if it is one continuous chunk of memory, called virtual memory.
File systems allow users and programs to organize and sort files on a computer, often through the use of directories (or "folders").
A screenshot of the Bash command line. Each command is typed out after the 'prompt', and then its output appears below, working its way down the screen. The current command prompt is at the bottom.
A screenshot of the KDE Plasma 5 graphical user interface. Programs take the form of images on the screen, and the files, folders (directories), and applications take the form of icons and symbols. A mouse is used to navigate the computer.

macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (17.72%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.73%).

The Linux kernel is used in some popular distributions, such as Red Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Google's Android, Chrome OS, and Chromium OS.

Portage in action

Portage (software)

Portage in action
Porthole graphical frontend.
Unmerge of SpaceFM file manager
Portage during system update

Portage is a package management system originally created for and used by Gentoo Linux and also by Chrome OS, Calculate, Sabayon, and Funtoo Linux among others.

The stated objectives of the project are to have better hardware support, better software support and to create a "culture shock" for people that have previously used Linux systems.