Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failureend-stage kidney diseaseend stage renal diseasekidney diseasekidney failurechronic renal diseaseend-stage kidney failureend-stage renal failure
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months to years.wikipedia
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Renal osteodystrophy

bone disease
Complications include an increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, and anemia.
Renal osteodystrophy is currently defined as an alteration of bone morphology in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Kidney disease

renal diseasenephropathykidney damage
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months to years.
Chronic kidney disease causes the gradual loss of kidney function over time.

Renal function

glomerular filtration ratekidney functioncreatinine clearance
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months to years.
Staging of chronic kidney disease is based on categories of GFR as well as albuminuria and cause of kidney disease.

Glomerulonephritis

C3 glomerulonephritisglomerular nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative
Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease. The three most common causes of CKD in order of frequency as of 2015 are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis.
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease.

Diabetic nephropathy

diabetic kidney diseasenephropathydiabetic nephropathies
Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease.
Likewise, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may progressively fall from a normal of over 90 ml/min/1.73m 2 to less than 15, at which point the patient is said to have end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).

Loop diuretic

loop diuretics
Loop diuretics may be used to control edema and, if needed, to further lower blood pressure.
They are primarily used in medicine to treat hypertension and edema often due to congestive heart failure or chronic kidney disease.

ACE inhibitor

ACE inhibitorsangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are generally first-line agents for blood pressure control, as they slow progression of the kidney disease and the risk of heart disease.
ACE inhibitors have also been used in chronic kidney failure and kidney involvement in systemic sclerosis (hardening of tissues, as scleroderma renal crisis).

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Complications include an increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, and anemia. Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease. The three most common causes of CKD in order of frequency as of 2015 are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis.
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

Renal biopsy

kidney biopsyComplications
Ultrasound or kidney biopsy may be performed to determine the underlying cause.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSAIDNSAIDsnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSAIDs should be avoided.
NSAIDs are also associated with a fairly high incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on the kidney and over time can lead to chronic kidney disease.

Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levels
Decreased kidney function is a major cause of hyperkalemia.

Polycystic kidney disease

polycystic kidneypolycystic kidneysAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease.
Studies show that 10% of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients being treated with dialysis in Europe and the U.S. were initially diagnosed and treated for ADPKD.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
Control of blood pressure and treatment of the original disease are the broad principles of management.
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysms, and is the leading cause of chronic kidney failure.

Peritoneal dialysis

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisIntraperitoneal dialysis solutionAmbulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Severe disease requires hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant for survival.
There is insufficient research to adequately compare the risks and benefits between CAPD and APD; a Cochrane Review of three small clinical trials found no difference in clinically important outcomes (i.e. morbidity or mortality) for patients with end stage renal disease, nor was there any advantage in preserving the functionality of the kidneys.

Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorderCKD-mineral and bone disorders

Calciphylaxis

Heart of stone (medicine)vascular calcification
It is seen mostly in people with end-stage kidney disease but can occur in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and rarely in people with normally functioning kidneys.

Cachexia

wasting syndromecachecticcancer cachexia
A range of diseases can cause cachexia, most commonly cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease and AIDS.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

angiotensin II receptor antagonistangiotensin receptor blockersangiotensin receptor blocker
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are generally first-line agents for blood pressure control, as they slow progression of the kidney disease and the risk of heart disease.
ARB inhibitors, although have protective effects against developing kidney diseases for patients with diabetes and previously hypertension without administration of ARBs, may worsen kidney functions such as causing further reduction of glomerular filtration rate associated with rise of serum creatinine in patients suffering practically clinical or already clinically present proteinuria, renal artery stenosis, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, heart failure, polycystic kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, interstitial fibrosis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, or any conditions such as ARBs-treated but still clinically hypertension that lead to abnormal narrowing of blood vessels to the kidney that interrupts oxygen and nutrients supply to the organ.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
The three most common causes of CKD in order of frequency as of 2015 are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis.
Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

hyperparathyroidism, secondary
Chronic kidney failure is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Uremic frost

Uremic frost is a colloquial description for crystallized urea deposits that can be found on the skin of those affected by chronic kidney disease.

Uremia

uraemiauremicuremic toxin
These include acute and chronic kidney failure, acute and chronic glomerular nephritis, tubular necrosis and other kidney diseases.

Calcifediol

Mesoamerican nephropathy

Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is a currently unexplained epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu), prevalent in the Pacific Ocean coastal low lands of the Mesoamerican region, including southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica.

Erythropoietin

EPOrecombinant EPOerythropoetin
ESAs are used in the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease, anemia in myelodysplasia, and in anemia from cancer chemotherapy.